Intelligent Design versus Natural Selection and Evolution Theories
By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
Arguments around “intelligent design” describe it as that which is directed, intuitive, rationalist and contrary to natural selection which is a subheading under the academic discipline of biology, and under evolutionary biology, is empiricist and engaging with the scientific method. The debate over evolution also has to do with what methods will be chosen to “write about life” and contrary to what has been said there is plenty of evidence to support evolutionary theory.
Many agree with Darwin on “how new things originate.” The study of evolution is considered a “central unifying concept in biology.” Darwin’s “Theory of Evolution and Natural Selection” were historic contributions to evolutionary theory. Science was later able to use evolution for gene therapies.
Biology was described to divide into four groups that include 1) biological organization from molecular to cell organization to population, 2) Taxonomic group which includes fields in zoology, all animals, ornithology (birds), herpetology (reptiles and amphibians), 3) Theoretical biology and 4) experimental evolution .
Evolutionary biology emerged as an academic discipline in the 1930’s. Biology has departments such as molecular and cell biology, ecology, evolutionary biology which were said to have replaced botany and zoology. There are examples given of statistician, Ronald Fisher 1890-1962, who it is believed to have helped form modern evolutionary synthesis of Mendelian genetics and natural selection.
JBS Haldone 1892-1964 helped create the field of population genetics. Using the Scientific Method one learns how to observe, how to experiment or how to calculate. Method is from the Greek “methodos” and as to do with the “pursuit of knowledge” or a way of inquiry or a way of pursuit. “Method has to do with a way of doing in accordance with a plan.”
Evidence of science journals support evolution’s claim as an “academic field” are: “Genome Biology & Evolution,” “Molecular Ecology,” “Proceedings of the Royal Society of London,” “The American Naturalist,” “Theoretical Population Biology,” “Trends in Ecology & Evolution,” “Annual Review of Ecology,” “Evolution and Systematics,””Genetics and PLos Genetics.”
Further expanding on evolution as a subtitle under biology which has the following sub categories: artificial selection, comparative anatomy, computational phylogenetics, evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics, evolutionary neuroscience, evolutionary physiology, evolutionary psychology, genetics, the origin of species, phylogenetic comparative methods, quantitative genetics, selective breeding.
An argument for empiricism and evolution is justified as using the “scientific method” within evolution subtitles such as “quantitative genetics,” or while operating under the academic discipline of biology. The determination of evolution has to do with investigation and developmental processes which compares them and different organisms. “Life History Theory,” suggests that evolutionary approach is key to “current research in organismal biology and ecology.”
“Annotation of genes and their function relies heavily on comparative evolutionary approaches.”
Evidence of field is included in science Journals such as: “Journal of Evolutionary Biology,” “BMC Evolutionary Biology,” Sub categories: “Systematic Biology,” “Molecular Biology,” “Molecular Biology & Evolution.”
Evolutionary forces include: 1) natural selection, 2) sexual selection,3) genetic drift, 4) genetic draft, 5) developmental constraints, 6) bias, 7) bio geography.
There are many evolutionary theories including the “theory of molecular evolution.” “Biologists try to infer which genes have been under strong selection by detecting selective sweeps.”
One possible hypothesis was that “evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in modern evolutionary synthesis.” The idea was for biologists to ask “what happened and when,” have methods and draw conclusions.
Another key term coined was for “genetic architecture” that is concerned with 1) adaptation and 2) speciation.
“What happened and when” uses “palaeobiology, systematics and phylogenetics.” “Evolution was largely concerned with genetics and what do genes do and changes that happen to genes, how many genes and at what point is mutation or gene duplication or genome duplication?”
Hereditability was another concept that used the genome and performed wide association studies. Evolution studies uses DNA data sequencing and applies it to evolution theory.
ID or Intelligent Design was a way of interpreting data.
Scientific arguments were often litigated and not based on assumptuous claims, but “conclusions arrival and vast evidence.”
“Designed for life” or “just right for life” or “how biology confirms our intuition that life is designed,” by Douglas Fox. Or rather “how new things originate or origins theory or with intelligent causation.”
“The Scientific Method is the process by which scientists collectively and over time endeavor to construct a non arbitrary representation of the world.” The Scientific Method uses a non-biased or non-prejudiced methods to portray versions of the world.
It was stated that “evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on earth…these processes include natural selection, common descent and speciation.”
Method itself in this case is also compelling when looking at the examples of the teaching of languages (Immersion Method), Pedagogy in general, Suzuki violin, architecture which may utilize various strategies including renderings and plans. There are methods for presenting research and methods for writing papers. Consult books like “Technical and Professional Writing,” or “Technical Communication” by Mark Markel which frames many methods for a variety of specific professional writings.
- Feist, G. (2006). Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience in The psychology of science and origins of the scientific mind. London, England: Routledge (Library link)
- Gower, B. (2012). Isaac Newton: Rules for Reasoning Scientifically in Scientific Method: A Historical and Philosophical Introduction. London, England: Routledge (Library link)
- Nola, R. & Sankey, H. (2014). What is this thing called scientific method? In Theories of scientific method: an introduction. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queen’s University Press (Library link)
- Wolfs, F. (n.d.). Introduction to the Scientific Method.
- Discovery Institute — Center for Science and Culture
- See New World Encyclopedia entry on intelligent design
- Theory of Intelligent Design – Crystalinks
- Discovery Institute — Center for Science and Culture
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phone: 206-292-0401 — fax: 206-682-5320
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