By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
“The Turing Test” was developed in 1954 by a Scientist named Alan Mathison Turing to understand via a conversational test whether or not a computer is thinking.  The challenge according Larry Crocket’s book “The Turing Test and The Frame Problem” may exist in the development of artificial intelligence and when differentiating between whether a computer has “genuine thinking or machine imitation thinking.”
Artificial Intelligence has been described loosely as “manufactured intelligence,” and further defined as “a branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of intelligent behavior in computers.” Artificial intelligence is also defined as “The capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior.”
Goals of the Turing Test may have been “The Turing Machine.” The “Turing Machine is a hypothetical computing machine that has an unlimited amount of information storage, was developed by A.M. Turing an English Mathematician in 1954.
Other goals for artificial intelligence that were suggested by Crocket were, “further cognitive abilities and computational psychology.”
Significant publications about the Turing Test are A.M. Turing’s 1954 original article, “Computing Machinery and Intelligence,” which is also included in A.R. Anderson’s 1964 Anthology “Mind’s and Machines.”  Later the A.M Turing’s article was also included in the “Oxford Companion to the Mind.”
More recent publications that shed light on the subject of the Turing Test as it relates to artificial intelligence include books on the Ablex Series in Artificial Intelligence by Yorick Wilks such as “Chess and Machine Intuition,” by George W. Atkinson, “A Connectionist Language Generator,” by Nigel Ward, “Computer Language and Vision Across the Pacific,” by Yorick Wilks, “Declarative Semantics of Logic Programming,” by Michael Gelfond and Vladimir Lifschitz.
 MLA (Modern Language Assoc.)
Crockett, Larry. The Turing Test and The Frame Problem : AI’s Mistaken Understanding Of Intelligence. Norwood, N.J.: Intellect Books, 1994. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 29 Jan. 2017., Pg. 1
 Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012, pg. 70
 Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012, pg. 1358
 CROCKETT, L. The Turing Test and the Frame Problem : AI’s Mistaken Understanding of Intelligence. Norwood, N.J. : Intellect Books, 1994. (Ablex Series in Artificial Intelligence). ISBN: 9781567500301, Pg. 2.
 CROCKETT, L. The Turing Test and the Frame Problem : AI’s Mistaken Understanding of Intelligence. Norwood, N.J. : Intellect Books, 1994. (Ablex Series in Artificial Intelligence). ISBN: 9781567500301, Pg 1.