Photo By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
Gari w/Sardines or Adapt to Husky Recipe
1 box of Cream of Wheat with individual packages
1 can Titus Sardines, hot or regular
¼ cup chopped tomato
¼ cup chopped onion
1 Bottle Sriracha
In a small pot on the stove, measure out Cream of Wheat Farina packet with its specified water and a dash of salt. Normally each packet takes 2/3 cup of water. Let that form into a thin gruel on a high heat and cook completely, then slowly add a second packet without its water to the gruel to thicken or it until it’s stiff and manageable with the hands. Place on plate in a mound. Use two packets and 2/3 cup water to make one serving.
Open one can of Titus, carefully open each sardine at their slit and remove skeleton all at once in fish. Run your finger down fish body to make sure all bones are removed. Place on plate sardine broken into pieces.
Chop tomato, chop onion, and then place on plate. End with a few squirts of Sriracha Sauce a tomato based red pepper sauce also placed on the plate.
Place them so you go from Cream of Wheat, to fish, to onion, to tomato to Sriracha-in order of operations for a nice taste.
Gari is a simple dish that you pull with your hands (right) from each pile and consume from your hands.
You can recreate the same dish but “Husky” by changing Farina for corn meal masa like Mexican Masa used for tamales placed in corn husks tied then in a large pot place a steamer basket and water on bottom and then place Husky on top in husks and steam for 45 minutes.
Eat the same.
Gari can additionally be paired with corned beef cooked. Corned beef that in left over is also nice mixed into rice with onion and green pepper.
Recipe by Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
Mackerel in Tomato Sauce with Boiled Egg and Fried Plantain
1 can Mackerel in Chili Sauce (From an African Grocery Geisha Brand)
1 can Crushed Tomatoes large
1 can Black eyed peas
1 large onion chopped
1 Green pepper chopped
3 tbsp. Palm Oil
3 tbsp. Vegetable Oil
1.5 Nina International Ground Hot Pepper Chiles
2 tbsp. Salt
½ tsp. Ginger minced
½ tsp. Garlic minced small
Rice (Valley Brand is good)
Boiled Egg, whole and peeled
Remove fish from can onto a plate, open each piece and slide off the boney skeleton, remove all bones. Rub hand or finger over fish to make sure bones were removed for safety. Break fish into small pieces Put on a pot of rice (2 parts water to one part rice dash of salt and 1 tsp oil). Put on a small pot of water and boil an egg or eggs depending on # of people (1 per person) for later garnish. Chop all vegetables and assemble sauce. Sautee vegetables in palm oil & veg oil (onions, garlic, ginger, green pepper), add fish, add black eyed peas, add stewed tomato and add spices. Cook down. In a separate skillet heat veg. oil. Chop Plantain into wheels and fry, turning once. Cook all ~20 minutes. Rice finishes in about 15 minutes. Everything should start to wrap up in 15-20 min. Place rice on plate, spoon Mackerel over top. Place a boiled egg in center of mackerel and plantain around egg on top of Mackerel sauce and serve hot. Serves 4. By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu passed on from Father (Kasoa Market)
A Basic Wield of Ghanaian and West African Culinary: Greens, Fish and Tomato
By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
A basic “wield” of West African cooking may have the same simple ingredients in many different combinations: it may include greens, peanut sauce, tomato and chicken, or greens, fish and tomato, or peanut stew with mushroom and chicken, or black eyed peas, fish, and tomato.
Most are stewed with and cooked in palm oil or coconut oil or vegetable oil with African Red Pepper Chili (Nina International Brand) and include garlic and ginger, onion and green pepper and sometimes magi cubes or blended up and liquefied onions, or blended up garlic, ginger and tomato with plantain dipped inside to make “Kelewele” or sometimes coconut milk, broth, or okra, or fried okra, or add spoonful’s of peanut butter or as a side blended up eggplant or hummus-these are some basic West African (and around) or Ghanaian cooking. You can get experimental with interesting chili peppers or a variety of mushrooms in stews or add plantains to stew to make it a little fancier or haughty. Some cooks will thicken a stew with Tahina or coconut milk or the liquefied onions or broths.
A basic idea is to blend and liquefy vegetables etc., succulence, and dipping. Also it’s flavored oils, tender meats and a little heat. Other common things are fresh fruit, fruit salads, fresh bread, kebabs and satays. Also common are rice dishes or rice and vegetables like “Joloff Rice” that includes mixed vegetables or dill rice or little savory dishes or cabbage dishes.
Alot of Africans like tender and spicy jerk chicken or coconut shrimp or meat pies or fried chicken or chicken wings (even marmalade wings or teriyaki wings)or curries or Ethiopian Berbere Stews or even Chinese Stir Fry’s or Spaghetti Bakes. Some African’s will go to a fish market or meat market and just want “a nice piece of meat” and some rice, plantain and salad etc. Some even like gravy’s and sauces. One African may like salads with boiled egg, sausage, tomato topped with Thousand Island Dressing. Some Africans like other cultural dishes that include a peanut taste like Vietnamese dishes with crushed peanuts or Thai, Pad Thai noodles in peanut sauce. Africans may also like “Bright Chicken,” which is a lemon based pan fried chicken and has marvelous flavor. Some may also like grilling or popping a piece of fish into foils with herbs and lemon into the oven wrapped up in a packet. Some African cooking has alot of French or Francophone influences from common shared languages and cultural taste buds. Dishes like Coq au vin or an aperitif or a cheese and fruit platter dessert may be popular.
Many meats can be tenderized and sautéed in coconut oil and eaten with rice and a salad or a vegetable or a pot of pickled greens. Many dishes can be topped with fried plantain and or a boiled egg on top or a boiled egg in bowls of stew to be sexy or macho. Most also include plantain fried, baked or boiled, yellow or green (green and unripe is often boiled) or cocoyam boiled, or yam tubers skinned and boiled.
Most also include some kind of doughy manioc like Fu Fu (pounded yam, often sold in flours), Gari (sometimes a Cream of Wheat or Farina stiffened with more of itself and less water), Kenkey or corn meal “Husky” (like Mexican masa cooked)(Kenkey without the Kenk or fermentation), rice or rice balls, or yam or plantain-as the starch accompaniment.
The other staple are stews or soups that go with starches. Stews are “cut meat” stews where large chunks or cubes are cut by a butcher on a band saw of either fish, chicken, goat or beef or lamb. There is an art to the cutting of the meat and the succulence of the stew later. Sometimes you can cut chicken with a cleaver. Try Kasoa Market in Ann Arbor, Michigan for good “cut meats,” for stews.
Kasoa Market also carries the staples of Titus Sardines which are good with a stiffened Cream of Wheat, Sriracha Sauce, chopped onions and diced tomatoes and sometimes also cooked corned beef-this is simply called “Gari.” Gari is served on a plate or platter all together in order of eating operations. Most dishes are eaten with the right hand, sometimes dipping into each item. Ghanaian’s have that dipping quality je ne sais quoi, like in the game with seeds and bowls “Oware,” almost like the letter “U.” Husky can be eaten the same way as Gari. The leftover corned beef can be mixed with cooked rice, onions and green pepper for another delicious dish.
Nkotombmre-is cooked down and blended chopped spinach or another green, broken up pieces of fish (mostly canned, marinated or pickled fish) Geisha Brand Mackerel in Chili Sauce or Titus Sardines and fresh or stewed tomatoes with African chili pepper and salt, cooked in palm oil. Let it all break down until it is one interesting blended green sauce that you eat over something or dip into with an accompaniment, even crackers or warmed or toasted bread. Nkotombmre is really tasty with fried plantain logs or boiled green plantains for example. It looks almost like Chimichurri which may have originated in Ethiopia and is around the world? It can be found in Mexico and Argentina via the Italians in Ethiopia that later immigrated to Argentina and it became their food, then from the Argentine’s presumably to Mexico etc. Chimichurri is ladled over meats, mostly beef, and is parsley, olive oil, red wine vinegar, cilantro, garlic, red pepper, cumin and salt all blended into a green sauce.
Many dishes could just be eaten with crackers like the Mackerel in Chili Sauce or the Nkotombmre, or Chimichurri can be ladled over meats and things. Some dishes you can take a bowl of rice turn it upside down in another larger bowl and pour soup over then lift off bowl to leave a round mound or an island with stew around or have a Fu Fu island in stew bowl or just a boiled egg and meats in stew. You can dress a stew in many ways.
Good drinks to have are ones like: Fanta, Bitter Lemon, Pampelmousse Grapefruit Drink, Palm Wine, Ting, Star Beer or African Guinness. With all the chili you may just want water!!! Fire! Fire! Fire! West African’s also typically drink lemon grass tea. They use fresh stalks of lemon grass and cut off pieces and steep them in hot water for a delicious and memorable tea. Some Africans really enjoy mulled herb teas or Black tea’s or Gunpowder Green Tea. There are also excellent South African wines like Chamonix or Simeon and many others. African’s also enjoy Peak Milk with Nescafe Coffee and even cakes iced with Nescafe icing. You can also just mix condensed milks as often do the Thai with coffee, a few tablespoons, for a delicious hot drink.
Ghanaian’s love “tea and biscuits” and are somewhat influenced heavily by the English. Other dishes common in England like baked beans on toast one may find also in Ghana. A Ghanaian father in America may feed to his young children, baked beans with hotdogs cut up in them-“beans and franks.” A plate of Gari may be shared by a father and his children as one plate. A dessert for a child may be simply baked plantains with peanut butter.
Africa was designated a more rural locale due to the presence of large game animals and game reserves. Perhaps it was more savior faire that desired land and rural, mixed with animals and cities. This represents a more simple “rural African diet.” As Africa advances and becomes more cosmopolitan, so will Africa’s culinary augment and grow with all the old favorites.
Then pop in some music like: Franco, or Thomas Mapfumo, or Ali Farka Toure or Amadou and Mariam, Orchestra Baobab, Miriam Makeba (Love Tastes Like Strawberries), Salif Keita, Baaba Maal, Babatunde, Fela Kuti, Buika, Caetano Veloso, Cesaria Evora, Dar es Salaam Jazz Band, Femi Kuti, Ibrahim Ferrer, Peru Negro, Sam Mangwana, Youssou N’Dour, Angleique Kidjo, Zap Mama, Soukous.
A French African Game “Changez Vous”
Sing in French passionately, guttural, gritty or drunken and dramatic, preferably a lamentation:
Sing first the chorus or beginning and “ad lib” the rest of the song spontaneously in French. You may write or practice ahead of time with dictionaries or translations etc. You may hold a paper to read from as you sing in French.
Best done on holidays or gatherings or in French classes or by fireside or when drinking wine or when channeling the French or feeling like a little parlez vous Francais or if you are Francophone a passionate lamentation about your love, or past loves or life.
Good examples are topics like from the monster of last year or change into her mother and my lover, or yesterday Serwah today Pomme Frites or the winter for the spring etc.
Make it a love song, make it the next Jacques Brel, become a French Torch or night club singer. You can be tragic or melancholy or forlorn or in love or write wedding vows.
It’s a nice “pocket game” that is fun for all occasions, ages and just in time for the holidays. A good excuse to buy a bottle of French wine or any good drink will do it! If you’re a child, try grape juice to simulate a drunken French disgruntled lover-and don’t get any grape juice on the carpet!
By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
Stay tuned for forthcoming book “Pocket Games” by Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
Up to Snuff #50: Winter Reading List 2018 with emphasis on African Writers
By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
Put together a box of books, cover your coffee table with books, light a fire or head to a cottage or good “reading city” and read, read, read and maybe practice piano, throw in a few page turners, some classics and what I call “kb” or knowledge based books, stash articles, research a nice PHD read, check for Nobel Laureates in Literature and don’t forget to take your child to the library once a week to satisfy a young readers consumption, maybe 2 books a night, maybe even take a book run vacation and collect foreign language books to build a linguistics profile, buy or build some book shelves and build your families library, read, read, read. A good hobby to have is researching books or getting good classes with good book lists or go to a school with a good library or asking colleagues for a book list, read, read, read.
Sommerset Maugham –all books
Daphne Du Maurier
Find some good Latin books
Spanish novels or newspapers or little pamphlets
Try to read/earn a few skills
Read across an area all you can get your hands on or a writers complete collection
Prentice Hall books (Publisher)
Nick Land Alt Right
Complete Guide to Sewing, Readers Digest 1995
Designing Apparel Through Flat Pattern Fifth Edition, Fairchild Publications
How to Draft Basic Flat Patterns, Fairchild Publications
Ross, B.H., This is Like That: The Use of Earlier Problems and the Separation of Similarity Effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition
Schank, R.C., Tell Me a Story: Narrative and Intelligence, Evanston, Ill, Northwestern University Press
Schank, R.C., & Abelson R., Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding: An Inquiry into Human Knowledge Structures, Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Spiro, R.J., Coulson, R.L., Feltvich, P.J., & Anderson, D.K (1988) Cognitive Flexibility Theory: Advanced Knowledge Acquisition in Ill Structured Domains, Tech Report No 441, Champaign, Ill: University of Illinois
Center for the Study of Reading, Sternberg, R. J., & French, P.A. (Eds.) (1991) Complex Problem Solving: Principles and Mechanisms, Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Voss, J.F & Post, T. A. (1988), On solving of Ill Structured Problems, IN M. T.. H Chi, R, Glaser, & M.J. Farr (Eds.), The Nature of Expertise (PP. 261-185), Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
The Complete Greek Tragedies
MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing
Writing Your Dissertation In Fifteen Minutes a Day: A Guide to Starting, revising and finishing your doctoral thesis/Joan Bolker
Sicily by Katie and Giancarlo Caldesi
The Italian Baker by Melissa Forti and Danny Bernardini
Mozza at Home by Nancy Silverton and Carolyn CArreno
Henry and June
Tropic of Cancer
Cities of The Interior, Anais Nin
The Rhinoceros by, Ionesco
A good almanac
Collect Maps and study them
Some African Writers
Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
Peter Abrahams, Mine boy, This Island Now, A Wreath for Udomo ( South Africa)
Chinua Achebe (Nigeria)
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie
Jose Eduardo Agualusa
Mohamed Naseehu Ali (Ghana)
Ayi Kwei Armah (Ghana)
Ayesha Harruna Attah
- Sello Duiker
Daniel Olorunfemi Fagunwa
Alex La Guma
Tahar Ben Jellouon
Cheikh Hamidou Kane
Sarah Ladipo Manyika
Bai Tamia Moore
Ngugi wa Thiong’o
Nawal El Saadawi
Marlene van Niekirk
Jose Luandino Vieira
Joseph Jeffrey Walters
Ama Ata Aidoo
John Pepper Clark
Viriato Clemenete da Cruz
Bai Tamia Moore
- Moses Nagbe
Ny Avana Ramanantoanina
Jean Verdi Saloman Razakandraina
Leopold Sedar Senghor
Patricia Jabbeh Wesley
Credit: Wikipedia African Writers List (see for more detailed list)
To order “The Pearl Reader” and “Magic 8 and The Bone Marrow Sucker,” two delightful collections of poems by Ghanaian-American poet, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu, see below links. Available from the website, or the publisher on trafford.com or from Amazon.com or Chapters in Indigo in Canada and coming soon on Barnes and Noble online. Enter your contact information at www.magic8book.com to receive future notices about upcoming book releases.
Magic 8 & the Bone Marrow Sucker:
The Pearl Reader:
An Approach to Art Making #2
By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
Art could be divided into groups such as: supply, craft and manufacturing artist.
Supply relates to those things derivative of materials and supplies that could be purchased, for example, from an art supply store. A good example of a supply oriented art work may be one that incorporates nibs, brushes and ink like Oriental Paintings or Bonsai garden paintings with fan brushes or outdoor art stations.
Craft may be things oriented to craftsmanship, from an artisan or may even be home spun. Examples may be things like burning into leathers, making candles, or a bricklayers training in tile, marble and terrazzo and making monuments or perhaps building engraved picture frames, cake decoration, or making clay monsters, or a holiday decoration or a cut out turkey made of paper or maybe some type of whittler.
A Manufacturing Artist may make sophisticated art works in a studio or factory based environment inclusive of sculptural works or electronic works or even professional frescoes via fresco printers and architectural works or installations or programmatic/technological works, or even the museum itself and mostly extremely fine art and almost all high art.
Culture is another distinct road in approaches to art making. Dedication to culture may inspire one to develop a culture or work on a subculture. An artist may become concerned with cultural branding or contributing an aspect of art or art practice that develops their communities culture. A cultural offering may set the tone for a business or enterprise or an organization, branding it and guiding its organizational epistemology or setting the tone for employees.
High art practice is often engaged in a curatorial based art making where a group of artists may utilize the same photo to curate a group exhibition. The photos are sometimes based on iconic imagery or indicative of an era. Groups of artists and curators may form a temporary or permanent collective group.
What a scholar might find really riveting, that is perhaps buried now is the initial use or heading of “The Arts” that was inclusive of science etc. In the early days of education there were three subject’s religion, the arts and medicine.
Use of acronyms in art can be a way of “big talking” -small or formulaic. Acronyms like “HISS” that means “highlight, spotlight and showcase” become important or acronyms like “Quepine” that means “Question, Proverb and News” can be used for art making.
Black Magic is also indicative of a kind of wielding or wizardry or technology use or logic. Black magic use can be something like programming things with thoughts by thinking over them, or digging holes or making connections between objects or talking to things or taking readings or working with numbers like 81 as Magic and Flight where you see in the eight a Spider and the one, a wing. Black Magic brings as James Baldwin coined it, “force vitale,” to art among other things much like the Chinese technique of calling “chi” or soul or “charming,” or animating like placing eyes on something.
One may draw a right angle with a diagonal cross thread through to create an art technique using perhaps era or time.Its possible to grid or work on a time based series using a right angle quick method.
“Era and Charm,” incorporates a black magic technique and has been very successful for making things like teapots.
Another interesting technique used by artists is “what does that make you think of?” This technique has to do with when you ask continuous questions of yourself or someone else leading to a trail of words away from a root word. For example if I said I have an apple, what does that make you think of? You said red, and then I said what does red make you think of? You said blood etc. and on and on and connected the trail back to apple to ascertain some unique, hidden, connected or passive meaning. With this dialog one would begin to build their art works from a kind of “art game playing.”
Another breakthrough in technology that has gotten into art is “the feed.” The feed has to do with when you send through a host, an agent or program that could be music or an emotion etc. Feeds or programs are particularly interesting in textile printing where a print may be made distinct when it is impacted by a program and made for example exciting or sensual, animated or dotted.
Perhaps a breakthrough in approaches to art making is the “eclectic gallery district,”or the placement of art or the combining of supply, craft, manufacturing art etc. All the usual pomp of art but inclusive of perhaps a “home sweet home sign maker” or portrait district or maker galleries or antiques or fiber arts or a variety of textile galleries-eclecticism in art may also be a mainstay. Eclecticism in art may create greater ability of “treasure trove,” and individuality within the home or arts final destination.
Really ultimately what makes or can make a really good fine artist is lots and lots of programs, lots and lots of technology. Artech can be many things including sound technologies or opera voice pieces, or holograph technology or film modulation technology etc.
Assessment of National Emigration Policy Adjustments as They Pertain to African and U.S. Foreign Relations
By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
Interdisciplinary Studies in Leadership
May 29, 2017
The following report is an assessment of national and regional emigration policy as they pertain to African and U.S. foreign relations. The basis of this assessment is extracted from research conducted by Timothy J. Hatton of the University of Essex and Jeffrey G. Williamson of Harvard University titled, “Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa.” The research was prepared for and presented at a conference on “Population Dynamics and The Macro Economy” at Harvard University, September 11-12th, 2000.
This report will analyze the findings of the Hatton & Williamson research. Hatton & Williamson compared African emigration with the European exodus to the New World in the 19th century and looks at what forces are drivers in emigration both regionally and across borders.
Table of Contents
The Drivers of Emigration Past and Present 4
Wages and Economic Disparities 5
War and Upheaval 6
Demographic Booms (Figure 1) 6
The Impact of Emigration, Sending and Receiving—————————————– 6
Appendix B: n/a
This report is divided into two main sections that look at the first the drivers of emigration as it pertains to African and U.S. foreign relations. The three particular drivers examined will be wages and economic disparities, war and upheaval and demographic booms. The research will be extracted from Hatton and Williamson’s proposal, “Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa.” The last section will look at population dynamics and ramifications of emigration in a fourth subheading titled “Impact of Emigration Sending and Receiving.” The conclusion will look at proposals such as Hatton and Williamson’s work towards a solution to the problem of net migration and its connected problems.
The Drivers of Emigration
Many have been known to migrate outside their borders as was detailed by Hatton & Williamson’s research. Hatton and Williamson suggested several key forces that drive emigration regionally and across borders. It was detailed by Hatton and Williamson that many choose to emigrant to OECD countries with higher wages which is the: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The OECD includes the following countries:
|Figure 1. OECD Member Countries with Dates of Entry into Organization|
|AUSTRALIA||7 June 1971|
|AUSTRIA||29 September 1961|
|BELGIUM||13 September 1961|
|CANADA||10 April 1961|
|CHILE||7 May 2010|
|CZECH REPUBLIC||21 December 1995|
|DENMARK||30 May 1961|
|ESTONIA||9 December 2010|
|FINLAND||28 January 1969|
|FRANCE||7 August 1961|
|GERMANY||27 September 1961|
|GREECE||27 September 1961|
|HUNGARY||7 May 1996|
|ICELAND||5 June 1961|
|IRELAND||17 August 1961|
|ISRAEL||7 September 2010|
|ITALY||29 March 1962|
|JAPAN||28 April 1964|
|KOREA||12 December 1996|
|LATVIA||1 July 2016|
|LUXEMBOURG||7 December 1961|
|MEXICO||18 May 1994|
|NETHERLANDS||13 November 1961|
|NEW ZEALAND||29 May 1973|
|NORWAY||4 July 1961|
|POLAND||22 November 1996|
|PORTUGAL||4 August 1961|
|SLOVAK REPUBLIC||14 December 2000|
|SLOVENIA||21 July 2010|
|SPAIN||3 August 1961|
|SWEDEN||28 September 1961|
|SWITZERLAND||28 September 1961|
|TURKEY||2 August 1961|
|UNITED KINGDOM||2 May 1961|
|UNITED STATES||12 April 1961|
OECD, however is not inclusive of the entire world and does not include any African countries whatsoever. It is not clear, what is the criteria for membership into such a group as OECD and what one would hope for as an outcome? It is claimed by Hatton and Williamson’s research that OECD countries were “go to” countries where Africans have chosen to emigrate in search of higher wages that appear to run tandem with advanced development.
It is not clear, if Africans were deliberately excluded from such groups as OECD, who initiated the OECD and what were their chief goals and concerns. The earliest date of membership is dated 12 April 1961 with the United States as the earliest member. In January of 1961, John F. Kennedy assumed the Presidency of the
United States until 1963 and likely initiated the OECD with Dwight D. Eisenhower as Vice President.
According to Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg.3), “legal restrictions into high wage OECD countries have certainly choked off potential migration.” What is suggested by Hatton and Williamson’s quote is that migration among Africans may have been deliberately contemplated and directed with legal and myriad restrictions.
According to the OECD:
“Convention No. 143 adopted by the 1975 ILO
Conference defines clandestine or illegal migration movements as those where migrants find themselves during their journey, on arrival or during their period of residence and employment [in] conditions contravening relevant international multilateral or bilateral instruments or agreements, or national laws or regulations.” (Moulier Boutang, Garson and Silberman, 1986). “This definition places the stress on the diverse aspects of irregularity: entry, residence in the host country and the undertaking of an occupation.”
What the OECD illustrated was that recipient countries were limited in terms of their acceptance of new entrants. (OECD, 1999, pg.293) Regulations generally governed access to the labor markets. “This policy orientation is now common to all countries of Europe, particularly the new countries of immigration in the South (i.e. Italy, Spain, Greece & Portugal) as well as to North America, although US and Canada are still open to regular immigration.” (OECD, 199, pg. 293)
Wages and Economic Disparities
Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg.482) cited OECD wage increase of 40% by 2025 as having an impact on wage disparities between the African Continent and what are considered “developed” OECD nations. Wages are said to be one of the chief drivers historically of migration that drove the Europeans to migrate in the 19th century. If past predicts future, differences in economy will parallel migration as citizens go in search for a better quality of life. Many of those who emigrate also attract their friends and family to their host country and a “friends and family theory,” was supported by Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg. 483). “A third of African arriving in the 1990’s classified as close relatives of U.S. citizens.”(Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 480)
War & Upheaval
Several key indicators were cited by Hatton and Williamson (1998, pgs. 483-484) including achieving a refugee status, the HIV/AIDS epidemic, war and political upheaval. Examples such as how 100,000 refugees from Burundi returned to their home country in early 1994 as soon as fighting receded by way of the UNHCR Resettlement and Repatriation Act. Civil war in Zaire in 1996 when the Mobutu regime was overthrown 600,000 or 700,000 Rwandan’s became refugees. (Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 480)
There is a World Refugee Survey that details global population migration. Hatton and Williamson suggested that during conflicts citizens become refugees and are pushed across borders to neighboring countries rural areas and live in settlements. Refugees often return to their home country where they fair better assimilation, cultural commonalities and support network.
Commodity booms such as cocoa production in Ghana and mineral oil in Nigeria have caused large numbers to migrate. There are also rural-urban migrations that do not appear to be impacted by education. Those with more education seem to fare well in the rural-urban shifts. Youth aged 15-29 appear to be the biggest numbers migrating as work environments get over-crowded, spurring the youth to go elsewhere to seek jobs. (Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 483)
The Impact of Emigration Sending and Receiving
OECD has formed stringent policy on curbing migration into their areas. Hatton and Williamson cited a theory called “net out” where accepting emigrants or clandestine emigrants to one’s country may push others out even replace them in work. There is a wide spread fear in receiving countries that emigrants will replace their citizens in work, often working harder and for lower wages. In some cases emigrants are described as roaming work forces.
Even the slightest knowledge about wage increases elsewhere can ignite regional or cross border exchanges. Hatton and Williamson did not go into detail about the long term effects of migration. The OECD report detailed legal versus illegal immigration and at what point one is breaking the law.
Other things still may impact African emigration. The African’s who are successfully emigrating are likely students and were in pursuit of an education. Still others may be beholden to their architecture as OCED also cited Moroccan’s as migrating into southern Europe. Morocco has clay structured cave like housing that after new generations were born the architecture may no longer accommodate them. Depending on one’s lense, these cultural curiosities, highly skilled, roaming work forces may be welcome or not welcome. Emigrants in France were said to have taken over ~17% of the country. No one seems to be compassionate when upheaval occurs, and no one appears to look for root causes that may remedy a problem or a suffering population within or outside their home country.
Population dynamics and the factors that shift net migration are diverse but perhaps just a handful of things makes one pick up and leave their home country in search very often for an all-around better quality of life-inclusive of health care, education, food supply, housing, government, lack of war, higher wage and a possibility to elevate themselves and their extended family via wiring monies home etc. Perhaps conditions become unbearable or unlivable or too hostile or countries go into transition and world organizations do and do not respond effectively.
Additional information can be found by looking at Census Bureau statistics, reports from the United Nations, and The World Refugee Survey.
Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa, Scandinavia Journal of Economics, 105(3), 465–486, 2003, 1998
List of OECD Member Countries, http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/list-oecd-member-countries.htm
Annual Report, Trends in International Migration: Continuous Reporting System on Migration, 1999 Edition, https://www.oecd.org/migration/mig/2717683.pdf