Assessment of National Emigration Policy Adjustments as They Pertain to African and U.S. Foreign Relations

Assessment of National Emigration Policy Adjustments as They Pertain to African and U.S. Foreign Relations

 

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Interdisciplinary Studies in Leadership

Norwich University

May 29, 2017

Summary

The following report is an assessment of national and regional emigration policy as they pertain to African and U.S. foreign relations. The basis of this assessment is extracted from research conducted by Timothy J. Hatton of the University of Essex and Jeffrey G. Williamson of Harvard University titled, “Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa.”  The research was prepared for and presented at a conference on “Population Dynamics and The Macro Economy” at Harvard University, September 11-12th, 2000.

This report will analyze the findings of the Hatton & Williamson research.  Hatton & Williamson compared African emigration with the European exodus to the New World in the 19th century and looks at what forces are drivers in emigration both regionally and across borders.

Table of Contents

Summary                                                                                                                 i

Introduction                                                                                                            3

The Drivers of Emigration   Past and Present                                                   4

Wages and Economic Disparities                                                               5

War and Upheaval                                                                                         6

Demographic Booms (Figure 1)                                                                  6

The Impact of Emigration, Sending and Receiving—————————————–                                                                  6

Conclusions                                                                                                               7

Appendix A:——————————————————————————————–n/a

Appendix B:                                                                                                          n/a

References                                                                                                                  8

2

Introduction

This report is divided into two main sections that look at the first the drivers of emigration as it pertains to African and U.S. foreign relations.  The three particular drivers examined will be wages and economic disparities, war and upheaval and demographic booms.  The research will be extracted from Hatton and Williamson’s proposal, “Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa.” The last section will look at population dynamics and ramifications of emigration in a fourth subheading titled “Impact of Emigration Sending and Receiving.” The conclusion will look at proposals such as Hatton and Williamson’s work towards a solution to the problem of net migration and its connected problems.

The Drivers of Emigration

Many have been known to migrate outside their borders as was detailed by Hatton & Williamson’s research.  Hatton and Williamson suggested several key forces that drive emigration regionally and across borders.  It was detailed by Hatton and Williamson that many choose to emigrant to OECD countries with higher wages which is the: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.  The OECD includes the following countries:

Figure 1. OECD Member Countries with Dates of Entry into Organization
AUSTRALIA 7 June 1971
AUSTRIA 29 September 1961
BELGIUM 13 September 1961
CANADA 10 April 1961
CHILE 7 May 2010
CZECH REPUBLIC 21 December 1995
DENMARK 30 May 1961
ESTONIA 9 December 2010
FINLAND 28 January 1969
FRANCE 7 August 1961
GERMANY 27 September 1961
GREECE 27 September 1961
HUNGARY 7 May 1996
 

 

ICELAND 5 June 1961
IRELAND 17 August 1961
ISRAEL 7 September 2010
ITALY 29 March 1962
JAPAN 28 April 1964
KOREA 12 December 1996
LATVIA 1 July 2016
LUXEMBOURG 7 December 1961
MEXICO 18 May 1994
NETHERLANDS 13 November 1961
NEW ZEALAND 29 May 1973
NORWAY 4 July 1961
POLAND 22 November 1996
PORTUGAL 4 August 1961
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 14 December 2000
SLOVENIA 21 July 2010
SPAIN 3 August 1961
SWEDEN 28 September 1961
SWITZERLAND 28 September 1961
TURKEY 2 August 1961
UNITED KINGDOM 2 May 1961
UNITED STATES 12 April 1961

 

OECD, however is not inclusive of the entire world and does not include any African countries whatsoever.  It is not clear, what is the criteria for membership into such a group as OECD and what one would hope for as an outcome?  It is claimed by Hatton and Williamson’s research that OECD countries were “go to” countries where Africans have chosen to emigrate in search of higher wages that appear to run tandem with advanced development.

It is not clear, if Africans were deliberately excluded from such groups as OECD, who initiated the OECD and what were their chief goals and concerns. The earliest date of membership is dated 12 April 1961 with the United States as the earliest member.  In January of 1961, John F. Kennedy assumed the Presidency of the

4

United States until 1963 and likely initiated the OECD with Dwight D. Eisenhower as Vice President.

According to Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg.3), “legal restrictions into high wage OECD countries have certainly choked off potential migration.” What is suggested by Hatton and Williamson’s quote is that migration among Africans may have been deliberately contemplated and directed with legal and myriad restrictions.

According to the OECD:

“Convention No. 143 adopted by the 1975 ILO

Conference defines clandestine or illegal migration movements as those where migrants find themselves during their journey, on arrival or during their period of residence and employment [in] conditions contravening relevant international multilateral or bilateral instruments or agreements, or national laws or regulations.” (Moulier Boutang, Garson and Silberman, 1986). “This definition places the stress on the diverse aspects of irregularity: entry, residence in the host country and the undertaking of an occupation.”

What the OECD illustrated was that recipient countries were limited in terms of their acceptance of new entrants.  (OECD, 1999, pg.293) Regulations generally governed access to the labor markets.  “This policy orientation is now common to all countries of Europe, particularly the new countries of immigration in the South (i.e. Italy, Spain, Greece & Portugal) as well as  to North America, although US and Canada are still open to regular immigration.” (OECD, 199, pg. 293)

 

Wages and Economic Disparities

Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg.482) cited OECD wage increase of 40% by 2025 as having an impact on wage disparities between the African Continent and what are considered “developed” OECD nations.  Wages are said to be one of the chief drivers historically of migration that drove the Europeans to migrate in the 19th century.  If past predicts future, differences in economy will parallel migration as citizens go in search for a better quality of life. Many of those who emigrate also attract their friends and family to their host country and a “friends and family theory,” was supported by Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg. 483).  “A third of African arriving in the 1990’s classified as close relatives of U.S. citizens.”(Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 480)

5

War & Upheaval

Several key indicators were cited by Hatton and Williamson (1998, pgs. 483-484) including achieving a refugee status, the HIV/AIDS epidemic, war and political upheaval. Examples such as how 100,000 refugees from Burundi returned to their home country in early 1994 as soon as fighting receded by way of the UNHCR Resettlement and Repatriation Act. Civil war in Zaire in 1996 when the Mobutu regime was overthrown 600,000 or 700,000 Rwandan’s became refugees. (Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 480)

There is a World Refugee Survey that details global population migration.  Hatton and Williamson suggested that during conflicts citizens become refugees and are pushed across borders to neighboring countries rural areas and live in settlements.  Refugees often return to their home country where they fair better assimilation, cultural commonalities and support network.

 

Demographic Booms

Commodity booms such as cocoa production in Ghana and mineral oil in Nigeria have caused large numbers to migrate. There are also rural-urban migrations that do not appear to be impacted by education. Those with more education seem to fare well in the rural-urban shifts. Youth aged 15-29 appear to be the biggest numbers migrating as  work environments get over-crowded, spurring the youth to go elsewhere to seek jobs. (Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 483)

 

The Impact of Emigration Sending and Receiving

OECD has formed stringent policy on curbing migration into their areas.  Hatton and Williamson cited a theory called “net out” where accepting emigrants or clandestine emigrants to one’s country may push others out even replace them in work.  There is a wide spread fear in receiving countries that emigrants will replace their citizens in work, often working harder and for lower wages. In some cases emigrants are described as roaming work forces.

 

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Even the slightest knowledge about wage increases elsewhere can ignite regional or cross border exchanges.  Hatton and Williamson did not go into detail about the long term effects of migration.  The OECD report detailed legal versus illegal immigration and at what point one is breaking the law.

 

Conclusion 

Other things still may impact African emigration.  The African’s who are successfully emigrating are likely students and were in pursuit of an education.  Still others may be beholden to their architecture as OCED also cited Moroccan’s as migrating into southern Europe.  Morocco has clay structured cave like housing that after new generations were born the architecture may no longer accommodate them.  Depending on one’s lense, these cultural curiosities, highly skilled, roaming work forces may be welcome or not welcome.  Emigrants in France were said to have taken over ~17% of the country.  No one seems to be compassionate when upheaval occurs, and no one appears to look for root causes that may remedy a problem or a suffering population within or outside their home country.

Population dynamics and the factors that shift net migration are diverse but perhaps just a handful of things makes one pick up and leave their home country in search very often for an all-around better quality of life-inclusive of health care, education, food supply, housing, government, lack of war, higher wage and a possibility to elevate themselves and their extended family via wiring monies home etc.  Perhaps conditions become unbearable or unlivable or too hostile or countries go into transition and world organizations do and do not respond effectively.

Additional information can be found by looking at Census Bureau statistics, reports from the United Nations, and The World Refugee Survey.

7

References

Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa, Scandinavia Journal of Economics, 105(3), 465–486, 2003, 1998

List of OECD Member Countries, http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/list-oecd-member-countries.htm

Annual Report, Trends in International Migration:  Continuous Reporting System on Migration, 1999 Edition, https://www.oecd.org/migration/mig/2717683.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

Mapas del Mundo

Mapas del Mundo

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

 

He paved the roads

Across Africa

From east to west across her waist

From north to south down the height of her body

And around the circumference

By bus, helicopter, and ship

10,000 road builders

Moving game reserves

Building a network of roads like veins

And the necessary

Food, fuel and lodging stations

Along the way

Behind him were caravans

With energy, excitement and love

He carefully measured

With technology

Maps

World maps, continental maps, country maps and city maps

An artist had discovered by studying old maps in an antique store in Puerto Rico

A continental illusion or power misuse in terms of size of continents on maps

Changes in country name and ownership due to war, colonialism or sale was also noted

And in the Ann Arbor Michigan State Newspaper the theory of plate techtonics

That all the continents of Earth were one mass separated, a broken plate

That historically had fit neatly together called Gondwana

Up to Snuff #2: Winter Book List Mostly French, Spanish, African Titles

Up to Snuff #2:  Book List Winter 2017, Mostly French titles, some Spanish and African

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Figure Drawing for All its worth By Andrew Loomis

Nordic Cook book Chef Magnus Nillsson (Phaidon)

PHD dissertations

Edward Tufte

John Locke Essay “On Human Understanding”

Writing in the Disciplines (documents vintage writing styles)

Cassell’s Latin Dictionary

The Calligraphy Source Book or other books for penmanship

Bernard Levin, Enthusiasms Scrapbook of Styles

www.thebalance.com   (career notes)

The Seed Garden (The Art and Practice of Seed Saving) Michael Colby

The Manual of Seed Saving By Andrea Heistinger

Lettres de mon moulin  Alphonse Daudet (French)

Prevost  by, Manon Lescaut (French)

Balzac, Un debut dans la vie

Baudelaire, Le Fleurs du Mal

Beccaria, Des Delits et des Peines

Castiglione, Le Livre du Courtisan

Chateaubriand, Vie de Rance

Chretien de Troyes, Le Chevalier au Lion

Conrad, Nostromo

Dumas, Les Bords du Rhin

Fielding, Joseph Andrews

Flaubert, Memoires d’un Fou

Fromentin, Une annee dans le Sahel

Gautier, Le Capitaine Fracasse

Gogol, Tarass Boulba

Hume, Enquete sure le principes de la morale

Kafka, Dans la colonie penetentiare et autres nouvelles

Kant, Vers la Paix perpetuelle

Kleist, La Marquise D’O

Laxness La Clouche d’islande

Loti, Madame Chrysantheme

Machiavel, L’Art de la guerre

Marivaux, Les acteurs de bonne foi

Maupassant, Notre Coeur

Melville, Mardi

Morand, Hiver Caraibe

Moravia, Les Indifferents

Nerval, Aurelia et autres textes autobiographiques

Nietzche, Le Livre du Philosophie

Platon, Menon

Plaute, Theatre

Prevost, Histoire d’une Grecque Moderne

Quesnay, Physiocratie

Shakespeare, Henry V

Smith, La Richesse de Nations

Stael, De L’Allemagne

Stevenson, L’lle au Tresor

Strindberg, Tschandala

Terence, Theatre

Thackeray, Barry Lyndon

Michel Butor, La Modification

Marguerite Duras, Moderato Cantabile

Boris Vian, L’automne a Pekin

Alain Robbe-Grillet, La Maison de Rendez Vous

Roman Jakobson, Essais de linguistique genera, les fondations du language

Robert Linhart, L’etabli

Samuel  Beckett, Molloy

Claude Simon, La route des Flandres

Claude Simon, L’Herbe

Robert Pinget, L’inquisitoire

Annie Ernaux, Les armoires vides

C.G. Jung, Ma vie (Souvenirs, reves et pensees)

Anne Wiazemsky, Mon beau navire

Margaret Atwood, the Handmaids Tale

Phillip Roth, La contrevie

Rilke, Les Carnets de Malte Laurids  Briggs

Vladimir Nabokov, La meprise

Vladmir Nabokov, Autres Rivages

Bertrand Poirot-Delpech, Le Golfe de Gascogne

Cami, Drames de la vie courante

Georges Darien, Gottlieb Krumm (Made in England)

William Faulkner, Treize histoires

Pascal Quignard, Le escaliers de Chambord

Nathalie Sarraute, Tu ne t’aimes pas

Pietro Citati, Kafka

Jean d’Ormesson, Garcon de quoi ecrire

Michel Deon, Louis XIV par lui-meme

James Hadley Chase, Le fin mot de l’histoire

Zoe Oldenburg, Le process du reve

Plaute, Theatre complet I

Plaute, Theatre complet II

Mehdi Charef, Le harki de Meriem

Naguib Mahfouz

Nijinsky, Journal

Jorge Amado, Les terres du bout du monde

Jorge Amado, Suor

Hector Bianciotti, Seules les larmes seront competes

Sylvie Germain, Jours de colere

Pierre Magnan, L’amant du poivre d’ane

Jim Thompson, Un chouette petit lot

Pierre Bourgeade, L’empire de livres

Emile Zola, La Faute de l’abbe Mouret

Serge Gainsbourg, Mon proper role 1

Serge Gainsbourg, Mon proper role 2

Thomas Bernhard, Le neveu de Wittgenstein

Daniel Boulanger, Mes coquins

Albert Camus, La mort heureuse

Didier Daeninckx, Le facteur fatal

Jean Delay, Avant Memoire I

Romain Gary, Adieu Gary Cooper

Alfred de Vigny, Servitude et grandeur millitaires

Patrick Modiano, Voyage de noces

Pierre Moinot, Armes et bagages

J.-B Pontalis, Loin

John Steinbeck, La Coupe d’or

Gisele Halimi, La cause des femmes

Khalil Gibran, Le Prophete

Boileau-Narcejac, Le bonsai

Frederic H. Fajardie, Un homme en harmonie

Michel Mohrt, Le telesiege

Vladimir Nabokov, Pnine

Vladimir Nabokov, Le don

Carlos Onetti, Les bas-fonds du reve

Daniel Pennac, La petite marchande de prose

Guy Rachet, Le soleil de la perse

Georges Steiner, Anno Domini

Mario Vargas Llosa, L’homme qui parle

Marguerite Yourcenar, En pelerine et en etranger

Voltaire, Zadig et autres contes

Regis Debray, Les masques

Diane Johnson, Dashiell Hammett:  une vie

Yachar Kemal, Tourterelle, ma tourterelle

Julia Kristeva, Les Samourais

Pierre Magnan, Le mystere de Seraphin

Mouland Mammeri, La colline oubliee

Francis Ryck, Mourir avec moi

John Saul, L’ennemi de bien

Jean-Loup Trassard, Campagnes de Russie

Francis Walder, Saint Germain ou la negociation

Voltaire, Candide et autres contes

Robert Mallet, Region inhabitee

Oscar Wilde, Le Portrait de Dorian Gray

Rene Fregni, Les Chemins noirs

Patrick Besson, Les petits maux d’amour

Henri Bosco, Antonin

Paule Constant, White Spirit

Pierre Gamarra, Cantilene occitane

Herve Guibert, A l’ami qui ne m’a pas sauve la vie

Tony Hillerman, Le Peuple de l’ombre

Yukio Mishima, Le Temple de l’aube

Francois Salvaing, De purs desastres

Sempe, Par Avion

Jim Thompson, Eliminatoires

John Updike, Rabbit rattrape

Diderot, Jacque le fataliste

Kirishima, Kazuhiro  Memoires D’un Lutteur de sumo

Rosario Castellanos, Bella dama sin piedad y otros poemas

Carlos Fuentes, La muetre de Artemio Cruz

Juan Rulfo, El Llano en llamas

Miguel Leon-Portilla, Los antiguos Mexicanos

Octavio Paz, Libertad bajo palabra

Rodolfo Usigli, El gesticulador

Rosario Castellanos, Balun Canan

Fernando Benitez, La ruta de Hernan Cortes

Ramon Lopez Velarde, La Suave Patria

Edmund Valades, la muerte tiene permisso

Alfonso Caso, El pueblo de sol

Jose Vasconcelos, Ulises criolla

Jose Vasconcelos, Ulises criollo segunda parte

Jose Gorostiza, Muerte sin fin

Alfonso Reyes, Vision de Anahuac

Agustin Yanez, La tierra prodiga

Gutierra Tibon, El ombligo como centro erotico

Julio Torri, De fusilamientos

Charles Brasseur, Viaje por el istmo de Tehuantepec

Salvador Novo, Nuevo Amor

Salvador Toscano, Cuauhtemoc

Juan de la Cabada, Maria La Voz

Carlos Pellicer, Hora de Junio Practica de vuelo

Mariano Azuela, Mala Yerba Y Esa sange

Emilio Carballido, Rosalba Y los Llaveros

Popol Vuh

Vicente T. Mendoza, Lirica infantile de Mexico

Octavio Paz, El laberinto de la soledad

Efren Hernandez, La Paloma, el sotano y la torre

Carlos Fuentes, Las buenas conciencias

Laurette Sejourne, Pensamiento y religion en el Mexico antiguo

Sergio Galindo, El Bordo

Rosario Castellanos, Mujer que sabe latin

Rafael F. Munoz, Santa Anna

Ramon Rubrin, La bruma la vuelve azul

Mauricio Magdaleno, El ardiente verano

Xavier Villaurrutia, Nostalgia de la muerte

Francisco de la Maza, El guadalupanismo mexicano

El Libro de los Libros de Chilam Balam

J.L Martinez, Nezahualcoyotl

Rojas Gonzalez, La venganza de Carlos Mango

  1. Paula Kolonitz, Un viaje a Mexico en 1864

Sergio Magana, Los signos del Zodiaco

Luisa Josefina Hernandez, Los frutos caidos

Hector Mendoza, Las cosas simples

Ricardo Pozas, Juan Perez Jolote

Jose Pacheco, Fin de siglo

Fernando Benitez, El agua envenenada

Alfonso Reyes, La cena

Francisco L. Urquizo, Fui soldado de levita

Henry Miller, Tropic of Cancer

Henry Miller, Tropic of Capricorn

Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company

Barnes, Djuna  The Book of Repulsive Women

Boyd, Ernest, Portraits:  Real and Imaginary

Boyle, Kay, Collection of 9 letters

Dorris, Michael, A Yellow Raft in Blue Water

Munson, Gorham B. Waldo Frank:  A Study

Stearns, Harold, Confessions of Harvard Man

Camus, Albert, La Chute, Folio, 1956

Sartre, Huis clos suivi de Les mouches

Aragon, Le paysan de Paris, Folio, 1926

Nina Berberova, L’accompagnatrice, Roman

Camara Laye, L’enfant noir

Jean Paul Satre, Classiques du Siecle

Francois Mauriac, Therese Desqueyroux

Francois Mauriac, Le Mystere Frontenac

Francois Mauriac, Le Noeud De Viperes

Francois Mauriac, La fin de la Nuit

Francois Mauriac, Genitrix

Francois Mauriac, Le Desert de L’Amour

Francois Mauriac, Le Baiser Au Lepreux

Jean Cocteau, Le Machine Infernale

Edmond Rostand, Cyrano De Bergerac

Alphonse Daudet, Lettres de on moulin

Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du mal et autres poems

Diderot, Jacques le fataliste

Manon Lescaut, Prevost

Michel Butor, La Modification

Annie Ernaux, Les armoires vides

Pablo Neruda, Antologia General

Ben okri the famished road

 

Maryse Conde I, tituba

 

Wole Soyinka

 

Ishmael Reed

 

Rebeka, Njau

 

Amos, Tutuola

 

Chikwenye Okonjo Ogunyemi

 

flying home Ralph Ellison

 

Catherine acholonu  ogbanje: a motif and a theme in the poetry of chrisotpher okigbo

 

Niyi Osundare  the poem as a mythic-linguistic event:  the study of soyinkas abiku

 

Nobel Prize speeches Soyinka and Morrison

 

Bessie Head maru, the collector of treasures

 

Ama Ata Aidoo  an angry letter in January

 

Jamaica Kincaid  lucy

 

Sindiwe Magona  to my childrens children

 

Lauretta Ngcobo  and they didn’t die

 

Tess Onwueme  go tell it to women

 

Susheila Nasta motherlands

 

Assata Ashakur  assata an autobiography

 

Nafissatou Diallo a Dakar childhood

 

Buchi Emecheta  a second class citizen

 

Camara laye the dark child the autobiography of an African boy

 

Wa thiong’o ngugi  detained a writers prison diary

 

Winnie Mandela part of my soul went with him

 

Ezekiel Mphahlele  down second avenue

 

Itabari Njeri every goodbye aint gone

 

Nkrumah, Kwame Ghana the autobiography of kwame Nkrumah

 

James Olney autobiography essay theoretical and critical

 

The beautiful ones are not born yet

 

Mariama Ba so long a letter

 

Rebeka Njau ripples in the pool

 

Flora Nwapa one is enough

 

Ntozake Shange sassafras, cypress and indigo

 

Rainbows Newton

 

Rabelais Gargantua and Pantegruel

 

Great Books Britainica

 

Tom Jones  Henry Fielding

 

Pride and Prejudice Jane Austen

 

Le Rouge and le Noir  Stendahl

 

Le Pere Goriot Balzac

 

Madame Bovary Flaubert

 

Moby Dick Herman Melville

 

Wuthuring Heights Emily Bronte

 

The Brothers Karamozov  Dostoyevsky

 

War and Peace Tolstoy

 

Chaos theory books

 

Herman Hesse

 

Langston Hughes

 

Back issues of NKA

 

Back issues of Revue Noire

 

Foreign Affairs

 

Bees

 

Hummingbirds

 

Butterflies

 

Impressionist Art

 

Special powers books I can find

 

Keats Irish folktales

 

 

Chinua Achebe-things Fall Apart, No Longer at Ease, Arrow of God, A Man of the People, Girls at War, Beware Soul Brother

Tewfik Al-Hakim fate of a cockroach

T.M. Aluko-One man, one Matchete, One man, One Wife, Kinsman and Foreman, Chief and Honouraboe Minister, His Worshipful Majesty

Elechi Amadi-The Concubine, The Great Ponds, Sunset in Biafra, The Slave

Jared Angira-Silent Voices

I.N.C. Aniebo-The anonymity of Sacrifice, the Journey Within

Ayi Kwei Armah-The Beautiful Ones are not Yet born, Fragments, Why are we so blessed, The healers

Bediako Asare -rebel

Kofi Awooner-this Earth, my Brother

Francis Bebey-Agatha Moudios Son, The Ashanti Doll

Mongo Beti-Mission to Kala, King Lazarus, the Poor

 

 

 

An Approach to Art Making #1

An Approach to art making can include diverse formulae. One such formula may root an artwork in “research.” A body of research may form the foundation of an artwork.  “Rich” artwork may result from a body of research.  Research may need to employ writing, to develop the artwork or artworks.  Without writing, it is difficult to have the dialogue one needs to be engaged with an art work-before and after the artwork. Research may also involve data collection or formal methods employed by scientists in, for example, social methods or qualitative methods or quantitative research methods. An artist may also utilize methods in investigative journalism.

A second road may be a formula such as “Quepine (QPN),” Question, Proverb and News. Quepine can be a divine formula for beauty or knowledge or beauty from knowledge. Quepine is a formula that may result in sacred artworks and make an artist wise. Quepine can root a subject matter in history by attaching it to the news. News is history. Giving a subject history gives it depth and a road to travel on in time.  News has been a theme in art for a long time.  News is used in wax print textiles, art, and music of certain cultures, especially African cultures, who may name a baby or feature a notable from the news.  In some of the African music, the news may be right in the music. A small rural village may become reliant on musicians to convey the news to the people via songs.  Also, some art schools taught “news” as a way of plucking from current events, subjects relevant to the human condition as was done by a student colleague from the Parisian E’cole de Beaux Arts.  Human condition is not exclusive to the news, but it is a worthy method.  Human Condition was taught, perhaps, as a notch from existentialism and existentialism is perhaps “the root of art.”

Why this writer believes that existentialism is “the root of art”  is the relationship to “art” of the word in “Crackiola,”  “are-tea,” or  “our essence” or the “I AM” which was used by many supercomputers and by the Chinese Manufacturers.  The English language breaks down into codes and root systems.  Secondly, many crucial areas in art are easily organized around existentialism or the “I AM,” such as history, the human condition, social, observational, humanitarian and so on.  Drawing, painting, sculpting and photography etc. may all be existential.

-Existentialism

“Planning” may also be something that architects utilize to build houses and could be a word that artists need. This writer was explained how an architect may have a very detailed and specific set of plans to build an exact design precisely and swiftly with all the electrical outlets etc. An artist may make “plans.” An artwork based on plans may have an interesting result that is often mechanical or electrical or structural. Computer Aided Drafting may be utilized.

Recently, this writer was asked “what are your goals?” and “how will you design your studio?” right after. It was asked in a sewing class and functioned like an epiphany, the student began to develop this wild list of “sewing goals.”

If one picked up a good newspaper or a selection of newspapers and thought about say for example “world peace” or integrated social elements into ones goals their studio may take a different turn. What if one had an “umbrella” under which they were working from? An artist’s umbrella.

-Goals

– Studio Design

-Umbrella

“Technique” is the fourth road. The technique provides an endless possibility. Most art schools provide students with strong technical backgrounds, which always serve an artist.  An artist may choose to hinge their artwork on a technique and be infinite within it.  The technique can be powerful when coupled with for example, “history.” Students of art may also embark on an existential path that explores diverse techniques.

“Studies” are another road that was used in Nikolai Gogol’s book “Diary of a Madman.” Studies can provide a context for future works or larger works or thumbnails or for manifestation.  With studies, one may take it apart in many ways, to ascertain many diverse things. Studies may lead to problem solving or product design or anything in the realm of possibility. Studies may serve government and help people to bridge gaps and jump over fences. In Gogol’s book, “Diary of a Madman,” his main character was engaged in studies and posted an ad in the newspaper to solicit clients for his portraiture.

-Research

-Quepine

-Planning (as in Architecture)

-Technique

-Studies

In the presence of writing an artwork can literally fall- “when it falls.” When one is writing a book, for example, and illustrating pages, drawings are easily pulled from the text.

However, most artworks are “site-specific.” An artist can search for a locale, build a locale or create a site-specific work of art.  Recently an artist went to plan an exhibition and recognized this phenomenon- that in fact, artwork is almost always “site-specific.” Or an artwork can be adapted to space and remade.

Another intersection I find very meaningful is “custom design,” for the artist and for the designer.  Custom design, commissions and site specific art works, bare a relationship. There is a necessity in art to think about space.

Custom Design may be very relevant to artists, who in turn may pursue credentials from multidisciplinary design programs such as “MDP” in the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan.  Custom design may involve manufacturing, technology or systems design mixed with artworks. For example “Church Pop,” may be installed in a house or perhaps a fiber art wall installation or a sound system. An artist may need to be an engineer. An artist’s ability to manifest their ideas has often been incongruent. But the creativity of an artist may place on paper, a vision for an entire city or even in exhibition unveil viable ideas to solve the world’s problems.

-When it falls

-Site Specific

-Custom Design

 In the Middle East, it has been said, to employ “finery techniques,” that “fine art should be fine.”  In the Middle East it is commonplace for a lot of people to reside in palaces, which would further create a desire for finery, or art that is compatible with the local architecture.

At the Central Academy of Fine Art in China, they are painting birds and flowers-not exclusively. It was said to me by a Chinese Artist that “birds are always beautiful.” If you choose a beautiful subject, the result is almost always beautiful.

-Finery

Art Relevant Juncture has also to do with relevance itself. It was said to this artist that she has a “relevant” artwork. That “the more relevant, perhaps the better the art,” was said by someone from the University of Michigan.

Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

(Excerpt from “Art Relevant Juncture,” by Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu based on her research about art.

Afua Osei-Bonsu Chosen for Next Gen Leadership Award 2016

Hi Afua,

“Congratulations! You have been chosen as a Next Generation Nonprofit Leader by the Nonprofit Leadership Alliance!  Your selection as a NextGen Leader is a nationally recognized honor for you personally, as well as for your campus’ Nonprofit Leadership Alliance program.”

NLA

 

“The Local Markets” (Washtenaw County, Ann Arbor, Michigan)

The Local Markets

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Kasoa Market
How hot is the shito? Fire! Fire! Fire!
sesame seeds, palm oil, bitter leaves, yucca, groundnut paste, eggplant puree, fufu, gari, Valley Rice, yam, coconut milk, Bitter Lemon, palm wine, Ting, (need Star Beer, Ghanaian Guinness, Chamonix),
wax print, net washing clothes, shea butter, African Films, wooden spoons

Hua Xing Market
The fish that plays dead doesn’t get eaten.
The fish that plays dead is the one to eat, because they are the smartest.
The different speckled fish is there to clean the tank, not to eat.
live sea bass, tilapia, frogs, and turtles,
duck, pig hearts, dried plum, bamboo shoots, lemongrass, anise seed, rose black tea, Tie Guan Yin, jasmine tea, Thai Tea, condensed milk, Tea Break Snacks, fortune cookies, green tea late candies, lemon drops, oyster crackers
rice flour, noodles, dumplings, garlic, ginger, sesame seeds, chili paste, bok choy, Chinese Cabbage, long green beans, Chinese Chives, bean sprouts, green papaya, jicama, sesame oil, soy sauce, rice, sake, Sapporo, teacups, teapots, round wooden butcher block cutting boards, knives, chef hats, grass mats

European Market
poppy seed cake, yellow chocolate bars with little girls on them, St. Valentine and Nostalgia Teas

Mediterranean Market
rose water, orange blossom water, mate, sage tea, Mamoul, lamb, filet mignon, shish kebab, roasts, chicken breasts, halal meats (blessed),
dried lemons and limes, dill, zaatar, olive oil, tamarind sauce, tahini, grenadine molasses, olives, figs, coarse black pepper, spices, homemade pita, meat pies, kafta, bakery, chocolate croissant, babaganoush, hummus, grape leaves, feta, rose water deserts, almond wedding cookies
filo, falafel, samosa, Zam Zam Water

Bangladesh Market
mustard oil, spices

Whole Foods Market
peanut oil, freshly baked bread, sushi bar, teapots

Bombay Market
rose syrup, Jam E Shirin, chai masala tea, sag paneer, naan, good spicy frozen Indian,
fresh samosas, mangos, coconuts, basmati rice, spices, coriander chutney, dosa batter
Coconut Jasmine Oil, Almond Drops, Acacia Talcum, Vatika Shampoo, Chandrika Soap, ayurvedic products, Meswak Toothpaste, Babool Toothpaste
incense, tapestries, instruments, pictures Kali and Ganesh, music, cookbooks
trays, bowls & plates for Xi Xi

Hyundai Market
3 kinds of seaweed salad, fresh and dried mushroom, bulgogi, sea salt, sticky rice
teapots, bowls, cookbooks, Korean Films, exfoliating cloth, little umbrellas

Meijer’s
caramel apples, no bake cookies, Windmills, German Chocolate Cakes, carrot cakes, Girl Scout Ice Cream, Stroop Waffle (Dutch Cookies), Cracker Jack, popcorn, Hershey Bars, malted, cocoa powder, starlight mints, marmalade, maple syrup, baking needs, frozen pie shells,
Corona with lime, Shandy Leinenkugel, Squirt, carrot juice
catfish, smoked salmon, bacon selection, BBQ needs
cilantro, dill, sage, mint, jicama, avocados, navel oranges, mandarin, large apple selection, papaya, carrot juice, gherkins, baked beans, fire roasted tomatoes, sweet potatoes, sun-dried tomatoes, zucchini, mélange greens, wheatgrass, long green beans, sprouts, 3-5 lb. bags potatoes, red wine vinegar, frozen spinach, coconut milk, whipping cream, molasses
Arm and Hammer Toothpaste, Aveeno Stress Body Wash, Sesame Body Oil, egg coloring kits,
classic 70’s music, Northern Toilet Paper, linen scented bleach, lined white paper and pens, tights, white underwear
roses, eucalyptus, spider plants

Trader Joes
brie, crackers, yoghurt, peanut butter cups, baklava tray, granola, nuts, Sangiovese, chai tea, Irish Breakfast Tea, coconut shrimp, spinach pie, vitamin c body wash, eucalyptus, flowers
General Tao’s Chicken, blueberry scones, dollar pancakes, Cherries in Merlot, Columbian Instant Coffee

Copernicus Market (Polish Deli)
herring salad, cabbage rolls, 3 bean salad, cured meats and cheeses, freshly baked bread, sweet mustards, pierogi, pickle salad, vegetable soup, mushroom soup, apple cake, poppy cake, rose petal jam, blackberry jam,
chocolate covered cherries with brandy inside, candy, crackers, Warka, Mouton Cadet

Dos Hermanos
mamey, elote, nopales, huazontle, aguacate, limon, flor de calabaza, tamal, tortilla selection, mole, salsa verde, queso fresco, guacamole, pozole, carnitas, barbacoa, tortas, diesmillo, carnes frescas
El Salvadoreno Crema, vanilla, canela (roasted cinnamon), carne asada, cerveza, Flor de Jamaica,
marzipan, playeras, Ojo de Venado, piñata, La Virgin, chicken’s feet