The Acquisition of Devotion

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Swami so and so has moved to California.  He has a dark coffee brown, shoulder length, wavy, fluffy hair, parted in the middle and warm, thoughtful, and caring brown eyes that sparkle, as if a tear were imminent. The Swami has set up a spiritual center in the middle of town, including yoga instruction and within a few years has acquired many disciples. 

The context for devotion is said to develop from three things:  1) when one gives good advice, 2) the quality of one’s teachings and or 3) one’s ideas, research, or writings. There may be other cases where one acquires Beatle-like mania, or Rockstar status or immense fame and acquires a great many fans, but this story speaks exclusively to the acquisition of devotion.

There are multicolored fast-paced changing traffic signals that run the tempo of New York City. With great desperation for peace, New York City could be the Yoga capital of the world.  There existed a popular small yoga center on the upper east side, where one teacher emerged as superior.  His ascension could be documented. Each student that arrived one of his yoga classes, ended as one of his disciples.  So much so, that when he moved to a new nearby yoga center, a few blocks north, his students as they heard of his departure and relocation, like a wave followed their teacher. 

What he had that was so special for students that made him so insanely popular in the city, he gave precise advice, his descriptions were precise and connected, he gives you exactly what you need in a moment.  You ask, he answers.  He had minimal work for maximum result. He had a style where the students held their poses for a specific amount of time to maximize the impact of the pose.  Even after some time, one realized that he had reshaped and sculpted their bodies, he had lifted their buttocks, he had aligned their spines.  In the new yoga center where the yoga teacher taught his students, they left drenched in sweat, feeling elated, limber and purified.  It became an ecstatic yoga feeling of elation, even one associated to him.  He came to have many followers of his teachings and their subsequent devotion.  Even other teachers fond of his style, became his disciples.   

He often wore a simple divine looking handkerchief or scarf tied to his balding head.  It came to spiritualize the way a turban or headwrap would.  Perhaps it placed emphasis on his head, and in some strange way on God, it may have comforted him or placed him within the spiritual context.  He looked like a gypsy or a pirate. Souls waited for his words. He was energetic and magnetic. 

Some students say, “the whole class had reached a plateau.”  He struggled to make sure everyone of his students graduated to an advanced level.  What could be deduced from this description is that devotion is not necessarily given to preachers or ministers casually, but is actually a thing of “teachers.”  Most often, one comes to “worship” when someone has touched their soul or imparted a great teaching, one may then be their master.  It is for masters, or for teachers-devotion.

Fit, Lean & Beautiful #56: The Spiritual Library of Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu, as a Book List

Fit, Lean & Beautiful #56:  The Spiritual Library of Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu, as a Book List

(New, Rare and Out of Print)

Compiled By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

  • Bible Portrayed (Picture, coffee table book)
  • Egyptian Myths and legends
  • Oludumare
  • Marquis de Sade Misfortunes of Virtue and Other Early Tales
  • Voltaire Philosophical Dictionary
  • The Last Lecture Randy Pausch
  • A Passage to India E.M. Forster
  • Balzac Epigrams on Men, Women & Love
  • Apes, Angels & Victorians William Irvine
  • Sex, Sin & Zen Brad Warner
  • Mohawk Russo
  • Psychic Energy Workbook
  • The Curse of Jezebel Frank G. Slaughter
  • A Little History of Science William Bynum
  • The Sutra of Forty-Two Chapters Divulged by the Buddha Venerable Cheng Kuen
  • Harvard Classics Sacred Writings (Christian, Buddhist, Hindu, Mohammedan)
  • Manifestos of Surrealism
  • Love Story Erich Segal
  • The Passions of the Mind The biographical Novel Sigmund Freud Irivng Stone
  • Living Buddha, Living Christ, Thich Nhat Hanh
  • King Solomons Ring Lovejoy
  • The New Union Prayer Book
  • Devotional Classics
  • Peeps at Many Lands Kelly
  • Selected Poems Robert Frost
  • Notes to my Children
  • A Natural History of the Senses Ackerman
  • Meditations on First Philosophy Rene Descartes
  • Middle Eastern Muslim Women Speak
  • Existentialism & Human Emotions jean Paul Sartre
  • I touch Earth, the Earth Touches Me Hugh Prather
  • How to See Yourself As You Really Are Hi Holiness Dali Lama
  • Mystic of Wilderness
  • The Masters of the Spiritual path
  • Foundations of the Path
  • The Path to Attainment
  • The Memory Book
  • The Forest People
  • The Grapes of Wrath John Steinbeck
  • Pilgrims in Paradise
  • Love & Will Rollo May
  • Ceremony Leslie Marmon Silke
  • East of the Sun Julia Gregson
  • Fundamentals of Yoga Rammurti Mishra M.D.
  • Spiritualist Healers in Mexico Kaja Finkler
  • How to Know God Deepak Chopra
  • Original Blessing Mathew Fox
  • Philosophy of Religion
  • Way of the Shaman
  • Carlos Castaneda
  • Green Witchcraft
  • Dictionary of Mind, Matter and Novels
  • Before our very eyes, Reading for Journey Through Israel Danny Siegel
  • The Philosophy of Stress Mary F. Asterita
  • Jewels of the Wise Holy Order of Mans
  • Sri Isopanisad A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada
  • The Prophet, Khalil Gibran
  • The Kingdom of God is Within You
  • Prisoner of Zenda
  • Stretching, Bob Anderson
  • Siddhartha Herman Hesse
  • Manon Lescant Antoine Francis Prevost
  • Knowledge that leads to everlasting life
  • The Human Aura Nicholas M. Regush
  • Tao Te Ching The Book of the Meaning and Life Lao Tzu
  • Holy Bible King James Version
  • Sach Cua Thay
  • Personal Prayer journal
  • And the Flowers Showered, Discourses on Zen OSHO
  • Don’t Look Before You Leap, OSHO
  • Michael and The Angels, Tan
  • Perennial Wisdom, Elda Hartley
  • Peace is Every Step, Thich Nhat Hanh
  • Spiritual Unfoldment 1, White Eagle
  • The Book of Prayers, Edited by Leon and Elfreda McCauley
  • Around the Golden Ring of Russia
  • The Golden Builders, Tobias C. Burton
  • The Etheric Body of Man
  • Where there is light Paramahansa Yogananda
  • Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
  • Autobiography of Gandhi or The Story of My Experiments with Truth M.K. Gandhi
  • Daily Guideposts
  • Glory of Freedom, OSHO
  • Arabian Nights, Sir Richard Burton
  • The Detox Diet, Elson M. Haas, M.D.
  • Yoga 28 Day Exercise Plan, Richard Hittleman’s
  • Fundamentals of Yoga a Handbook of Theory, Practice and Application Rammurti S. Mishra, M.D.
  • Iyengar His Life & Work
  • Yoga For Women Nancy Phelan
  • The Mindful Practice of Falun Gong Dr. Margaret Trey
  • Light on Pranayama, The Yogic Art of Breathing Iyengar
  • The Essential Rumi
  • Mahabarata William Buck
  • Sayings Paramahansa Yogananda
  • Autobiography of a Yogi
  • Creative Visualization Shakti Gawain
  • Falun Gong Li Hong Zhi
  • God, Creation, Tools For Life Sylvia Browne
  • Tea Gardens, Ann Lovejoy
  • The Secret Power of Yoga Nischla Joy Devi
  • Algeria a Country Study
  • A Handbook of Medicinal Plants
  • I Tituba, Witch of Salem Maryse Conde
  • Gods, Heroes, Men and Ancient Greece
  • There Eyes Were Watching God, Zora Neale Hurston
  • Martin Luther King The Peaceful Warrior
  • Harvard Classics: Sacred Writings (Confucian, Hebrew, Christian)
  • Harvard Classics: The Odyssey Homer
  • Candide Voltaire
  • Aleister Crowley The Biography
  • Seeds, Mosaics, Chipped Decorating with Plant Materials Eleanor Rennssalaer
  • Sach Cua Thay Quyen 10 An Tong Khong Ban
  • The Trickster, A Study on American Indian Mythology Paul Radin
  • The New Penguin Atlas of Medieval History
  • Arts, Ideas & Civilization Jack A. Hobbs
  • Cassells Latin Dictionary Latin/English
  • Soules Dictionary of English Synonyms
  • Wings Hymnal
  • Service Book Hymnal
  • The Master Plan Coleman
  • Message Amma
  • Gandhi on Personal Leadership Anand Kumarasamy
  • Mohandas Gandhi
  • No Pocket in a Shroud Maxine E. Thompson
  • The Navaho Clyde Kluckman
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. Leadership
  • Veiled Sentiments
  • Four Masterworks of American Indian Literature
  • Freedom and Culture
  • Utopia, More
  • A Working Theory of Love Scott Hutchins
  • Psalm
  • Genesis
  • Mesopotamian Parallels
  • Enuma Elish
  • The Epic of Gilgamesh
  • The Patriarch and the Exodus
  • Egyptian Monotheism
  • Conquest, Chaos and Kingship
  • The Prophets
  • Amos
  • Hosea
  • The Book of Job
  • Isaiah
  • The Suffering Servant
  • Illiad
  • Greek Tragedy
  • Aeschylus
  • Sophocles
  • Euripides
  • Socrates
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
  • Virgils Aeneid
  • Petrarch
  • Boccaccio
  • Pico de Mirandola
  • Machiavelli
  • Castiglione
  • Montaigne
  • Shakespeare’s Hamlet
  • Moliere
  • Racine
  • Swift
  • Voltaire
  • Counterpoint to Rationalism
  • Rousseau
  • Goethe
  • Wordsworth
  • The New Testament
  • Augustine
  • The Song of Roland
  • The Thirteenth Century Synthesis
  • Dante
  • Chaucer
  • Erasmus
  • Luther
  • Calvin
  • The Counter Reformation: Loyola
  • Flaubert
  • Doystoyevsky
  • Tolstoy
  • Dickinson
  • Conrad
  • Kafka
  • Mann
  • Joyce
  • Eliot
  • Faulkner
  • Camus
  • Beckett and the Theatre of the Absurd
  • Wiesel
  • Solzhenitsyn
  • El Elephante Saramago
  • Websters Dictionary
  • Be Here Now Ram Das
  • Small is Beautiful
  • Alice Walker Poetry Book
  • The Secret Garden
  • New Work, New Culture
  • Bella dama sin piedad, Rosario Castellanos
  • El Leon, La Bruja Y El Ropero S. Lewis
  • La Casa de Los Espiritus Isabel Allende
  • El Gesticulador and otras obras de teatro Rodolfo Usigli
  • Pablo Neruda Antologia General
  • Octavio Paz
  • Bhagavadgita Home Study Course Swami Dayananda Saraswati
  • The Nymph and The Lamp
  • Profiles in Courage President John F. Kennedy
  • Les Fleurs du mal Baudelaire
  • Jacques Le Fataliste Diderot
  • Cervantes Don Quixote
  • Wild Irish Rose
  • World of the Maya, Victor W. Von Hagen
  • La Chute, Albert Camus
  • Le Payson de Paris Aragon
  • Huis clos suivi de Les mooches Sarte
  • A Lotus of Emptiness OSHO
  • Thayer’s Life of Beethoven
  • Edgar Allan Poe Proceeding the Harvard Celtic Colloquium 38-2018 Celeste Andrews
  • Muslims and US Politics Today Mohammad Hassan Khalid
  • Famine Relief in War Logged China Pierre Fuller
  • Imaginative Mapping Nobuko Toyosawa
  • Regional Literature and Transmission of Culture Margaret B. Wan
  • The Paradox of Being Paul Andersen
  • Feeling the Past in Seventeenth Century China Xiaoqiao Ling
  • The Epic of Ram Tulsidas
  • The Praise of Anradi Vol. 2 Bharatchandra Raj
  • Theory of Gardens Jean-Marie Morel
  • The End of Middle East History and Other Conjectures
  • Al-Muwatta, The Royal, Moroccan Edition Malik B. Asas
  • Orthodox Passions  Maram Epstein
  • The History of Kings of Britain David W. Burchmore
  • Old English Lives of Saints  Julliet Mullins
  • Allegories of the Odyssey John Tzetles
  • The Virtues and Vices of Speech Giovanni Giovaiano Pontano
  • Lives of Milanese Tyrants  Pier Candido Decembrio
  • The History of Akbar Abril Fazl
  • Pious Fashion Elizabeth Bucer
  • Finding  Time Heather Bushey
  • Vatican 1 John O’Malley
  • Observation & Experiment Paul R. Rosenbaum
  • Living History of Rome J.C. Yardley
  • Appian Roman History Brian McGing
  • Canonical Mires
  • The Splendors and Miseries Confessions Zolas Monly
  • Caliphate of Man  Andrew F. March
  • Taky’s Revolt Vincent Brown
  • Battling Bella Leandra Ruth Zarnow
  • Magic and the Dignity of Man Brian P. Copenhover
  • Unbound Heather Bonsley
  • Ingenius Peter Gluckman
  • The Missing Course David Goobler
  • Contradiction and Utopia  John Danaber
  • Neptune’s Laboratory Antony Adler
  • The Quran
  • Physics for Poets
  • Landscape Graphics
  • Akan Symbols, Adinkra
  • Linguistics
  • Fluxus
  • Tacit Knowledge
  • The Constitution
  • Flowers for Algernon
  • I never Promised You a Rose Garden
  • Shadow of the Sun, Kapuscinski
  • Amy Tan
  • Ha Jin
  • Complex Knowledge Studies in Organizational Epistemology Haridimos Tsoukas
  • The Cross of Redemption Uncollected Writings James Baldwin  (Force Vitale notes)
  • Things Fall Apart, Chinua Achebe
  • Waiting for Godot, Samuel Beckett
  • China in 10 Words, Yu Hua
  • Chevkov Plays-Uncle Vanya …
  • The Tale of Genji, Murasaki Shikibu
  • A Workbook for Arguments A Complete Course in Critical Thinking
  • Fallacies and Argument Appraisal
  • Logical Fallacies
  • Fallacies of Logic
  • A Rule Book for Arguments Anthony Weston
  • Mastering Logical Fallacies, The Definitive Guide to Flawless Rhetoric and Bulletproof Logic Michael Withey
  • Logic Concise Introduction to Logic Patrick Hurley
  • Informal Logical Fallacies a Brief Guide Jacob Van Vleet
  • Concise Guide to Critical Thinking Lewis Vaungh
  • Historians Fallacies Toward a Logic of Historical Thought David Hackett Fischer
  • Logically Fallacious 300 Logical Fallacies Bo Bennett
  • The Thinking Tool Box, 35 Lessons to Build Your Reasoning Skills
  • Amazing Dr. Ransoms Bestiary of Adorable Fallacies Douglas Wilson
  • Roland Barthes
  • Irish Folktales Keats
  • The Lord of the Rings J.R.R. Tolkein
  • The Diary of a Young Girl  Anne Frank
  • The Hobbit R.R. Tolkein
  • East of Eden John Steinbeck
  • Mere Christianity C.S. Lewis
  • The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin
  • Pooh Bear
  • Article: “Scholarly Voice, Avoiding Bias”
  • Pinocchio
  • Values: (Poor Bear, Gandhi, The Wizard of Oz, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Pinocchio, Dickins, OSHO)
  • Maugham Somerset
  • Santeria the Religion Gonzalez Wippler
  • Rituals, Spells of Santeria Migene Gonzalez-Wippler
  • Santeria Beginners Guide Riley Star
  • Santeria African magic in Latin America Migene Gonzalez Wippler
  • Lucumi The Ways of Santeria   Monique Joiner Siedlak
  • A Year In White Lynn Carr
  • Santeria Miguel A De La Torre
  • The Handbook of Yoruba Religious Concepts Baba Ifa Karade
  • Magical Power of the Saints Rev. Raz T. Malbrough
  • Tarot-The wisdom of the cards, Aleister Crowley Deck
  • Proverb various (mostly African and Chinese)

Does not include healing or culinary and very few exercise books.  Those are on separate lists.

Between two cones

Between two cones

She measured the distance between two cones

Then calculated how many times back and forth to achieve a mile

She walked a mile

Between two cones

How fast can she walk a mile between two cones?

In this small space, a distance

Between two stones

She walked a mile

How far, how fast?

How can she create peace with her steps?

On the way to the right stone

She thought blue

On the way to the left stone

She thought green

Blue she thought can be water

Green she thought can be trees

She purified herself with simple meditation in this way- water and tree

The small steps that make up a great distance

How to create a context of peace within oneself

Excerpt from upcoming book, “Sago Palm,” by Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Existentialism Exercises

Existentialism Exercises

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

The great “I AM”

Major players in existentialism:  the soul, art, life, GOD, all of existence, on and on to be everything

Art =Are-T or essence or perhaps the study of existentialism may be what art was meant to be

Some existential areas in art:  human condition, identity, force vitale, social, history, humanitarianism

Existential art teachings or studies or exercises-drawing, painting, sculpting, ceramics, fiber, graphic design, photography

The maker of the camera may be GOD

The essence of you, the soul of you, the essential system, how you came to exist, why you exist and how you exist, what is your condition within existence, the early preoccupation of man with the image of God and a lack of knowledge of himself or how he came to be

Existentialism came to be part beauty in the design of life, part explanation for a man ignorant in many ways of his life, part what may have been intended as life-a preoccupation with essential questions, one may assign a title such as GOD to an arbitrary or unknown or to answer an unanswered question or to fill a need that is unmet, for example if one needs someone and no one is there, many things came to be GOD, even dogs were thought to be GOD written backwards as loving and protectors and named after this omnipotent, or arbitrary or unknown or even known, some will call themselves or others GOD

The discovery of the soul:  The Hole, The Cough, The Light, The Lotion, The Parking Space, The Resume, The Blanket, The Shoe

The historical arts subjects or The Arts:  Medicine, Math, Astronomy

Scientific formula that is existential (eg. a pill):  What to be?  Where to go?  What to do? For how long?

MYW University-Make Your World

MOAU University-Making of a Universe

Sampling Studies, eyedropper

Hollow Penis, solid vagina

Negative mountain

Prosperous Zero

Falun Gong and Yoga practices, existential studies based on a life warrior or fighter or martial artist

Profession or to profess oneself something

Celebration of birth

Metaphysical, esoteric, apothecary

The Care of the Self

A child may ask his father what am I? He may say something like: “You are not a robot. You are 100% bio materials that are living materials and chips and a brain and a soul and organs which are bio materials and run their chips.  You have an animator and it keeps you alive. You have many fluids that lubricate and run your systems similar to a car.  You have a skeleton that maintains your shape.  You have lots of ability.  You are thinking, feeling and seeing. You have a brain tape.”

A spiritual and physical experience

 

Excerpt from upcoming book “Art Relevant Juncture,” by Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

 

 

Fashion and Textiles #2 Opulent Dress

Opulent Dress

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

  • I prefer an opulent dress. I choose an opulent dress. I choose a clean and bright dress.  I choose brilliance.  I wear an intelligent cloth.  I adorn myself as a way of love and celebration.  My costume and jewels increase in value in tandem with my character.  I have a collar I place on myself to achieve my level of opulence in all dress.
  • It was a devastation feeling as though I had lost my mind and an asset the emphasis on the brain. I wonder if my Jewels should place emphasis on a location that could serve as a Divine Action.
  • Sole Prints. The Divination of the Foot. The Making of Spiritual Beings, Make shoes with patterned soles or souls.  Walk in shoes a pilgrimage.  Use sole to make art, use art to make a village. Extract intelligence from products.
  • The Making of Divine Beings and Products
  • Prosperous Zero
  • I wear tatting, embroideries, jewels and beading.
  • I wear fine buttons and imaginative fastenings.
  • I wear head dress styled, regal, plumed, floral and exponential.
  • Original Tastes
  • My dress is an arrangement of love and the placement of poetry.
  • Body consciousness.
  • Living Arts.
  • Si Mi Pongo
  • Collars and bibs, Serwah related to babies,
  • Bows, candy combinations, confection,
  • Doll, lockets, light, the first light to reach a baby’s eyes, kaleidoscope
  • Vicky Ghindia

 

 

Work Up-Is God a Designer?

Work Up  Is God a Designer?  

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

God Design

New Species Design

The Art of Species, Chain of Beauty

Maplication of God

Maplication Subtitles

Creativity Religion

Original Creativity Outline

Briefs Structure

Creativity Theory

Original Tastes

Here’s Lettuce

And The Bird Is Made By Us

Sole Print Outline

Spiritual Time

Prosperous Zero

Self Realization

Humanitarian

Paradise Cities

Intensely Beautiful

Beauty Theory

A Fashion Show

 

 

What is “reductionism?”

What is “reductionism?”
By, Afua Osei-Bonsu

Reductionism according to “Reductionism: A Beginner’s Guide” by AM Rae clearly illustrates how things break down into their constituent parts and how these break downs can be governed by common fundamental laws.

In the political realm,  the reductionist model may be employed in another context perhaps to reduce a competitor, a reputation or an idea.  In the workplace perhaps a reductionist model has to do with when looking for a solution, you break down or reduce a problem into pieces.

In the scientific process, reductionism according to Rae plays a “central role in almost every scientific statement.”[1]  For example Rae describes “how a chemist may take a molecule and break it into atoms; how an atomic physicist may go further to look at atoms and then look at the nucleus surrounded by electrons-which Rae states obeys the laws of quantum physics.”[2]

Rae describes how scientists were looking for a “Theory of Everything.”[3]  It is as if atoms  could have been a universal starting point of for example “the dot matrix,” or relating to the digital realm and perhaps everything is made of dots-everything.

A common definition for a dot matix found online (Wikipedia) “A dot matrix is a 2-dimensional patterned array, used to represent characters, symbols and images. Every type of modern technology uses dot matrices for display of information, including cell phones, televisions, and printers. They are also used in textiles with sewing, knitting, and weaving.”[4]

Could dots that make up all dots, then be pixels, or atoms?  Everything, it has been said, “may be reduced to some kind of dot and make up a larger image or dot matrix.”[5]

Rae’s book made key points in regards to Reductionism  that included 1) falsification, 2) simplicity and 3) emergence.

Rae highlighted a book by Karl Popper, “The Logic of Scientific Discovery,” in which it is detailed “the problem of induction.”  In Rae’s first example in regards to “falsification,” she quotes Popper:  “In Poppers view the purpose of a scientific investigation is not evidence that supports a theory but to carry out experiments that disprove it.”[6]

Reductionism relates directly with the scientific method in the areas around induction or with a falsification model.  A quote from Rae said that, “good tests kill flawed theories, we remain alive to guess again.”[7]

In a video where Brain Scientist, Eric Kandel, lectured about his experience with reductionism, it was as if reductionism was essential not to overwhelm his experiments, but also to break them down to molecular levels, inclusive of for studies of behaviour.  In the same video, Kandel magically describes cells as having unique identities where one can come and go and return to the same cell.[8]

Rae goes on later to write about “Occam’s Razor” and its role in terms of simplicity in Reductionism:

“A good theory should involve no more assumptions (entities) than are necessary to explain all the facts.” Alastair Rae[9]

Rae states that “the fundamental physical laws such as in gravity are the same everywhere at all times.”[10]

Rae’s last key point had to do with “emergence” of new laws and the governance of the “same fundamental physical laws.”[11]

The applications of reductionism are diverse and are primarily useful when making “high precision calculations of atomic properties whose results can be compared in experiments.”[12] Reductionism may be used for things such as “Quantum Field Theory”, or molecular science, or material science, or biological science, or quantum physics.

[1] RAE, AM. Reductionism : A Beginner’s Guide. London : Oneworld Publications, 2013. (Oneworld Beginners’ Guides). ISBN: 9781780742540, Page 1

[2] RAE, AM. Reductionism : A Beginner’s Guide. London : Oneworld Publications, 2013. (Oneworld Beginners’ Guides). ISBN: 9781780742540, Page 1

[3] RAE, AM. Reductionism : A Beginner’s Guide. London : Oneworld Publications, 2013. (Oneworld Beginners’ Guides). ISBN: 9781780742540, Page 2

[4] Claus Kühnel (2001). BASCOM Programming of Microcontrollers with Ease: An Introduction by Program Examples. Universal Publishers. pp. 114–119. ISBN 978-1-58112-671-6.

[5] Random conversation sometime in 2016 with an unknown MIT Scientist.

[6] RAE, AM. Reductionism : A Beginner’s Guide. London : Oneworld Publications, 2013. (Oneworld Beginners’ Guides). ISBN: 9781780742540, Page 3

[7] RAE, AM. Reductionism : A Beginner’s Guide. London : Oneworld Publications, 2013. (Oneworld Beginners’ Guides). ISBN: 9781780742540, Page 3

[8] Video: How Reductionism Uncovered Secrets of Long-term and Short-term Memory | Eric Kandel

[9] RAE, AM. Reductionism : A Beginner’s Guide. London : Oneworld Publications, 2013. (Oneworld Beginners’ Guides). ISBN: 9781780742540, Page 9

[10] RAE, AM. Reductionism : A Beginner’s Guide. London : Oneworld Publications, 2013. (Oneworld Beginners’ Guides). ISBN: 9781780742540, Page 10

[11] RAE, AM. Reductionism : A Beginner’s Guide. London : Oneworld Publications, 2013. (Oneworld Beginners’ Guides). ISBN: 9781780742540, Page 11

[12] RAE, AM. Reductionism : A Beginner’s Guide. London : Oneworld Publications, 2013. (Oneworld Beginners’ Guides). ISBN: 9781780742540, Page 12

 

 

Intelligent Design vs. Natural Selection and Evolution Theories

Intelligent Design versus Natural Selection and Evolution Theories

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Arguments around “intelligent design” describe it as that which is directed, intuitive,  rationalist  and contrary to natural selection which is a subheading under the academic discipline of biology, and under evolutionary biology, is empiricist and engaging with the scientific method.  The debate over evolution also has to do with what methods will be chosen to “write about life” and contrary to what has been said there is plenty of evidence to support evolutionary theory.

Many agree with Darwin on “how new things originate.” The study of evolution is considered a “central unifying concept in biology.” Darwin’s “Theory of Evolution and Natural Selection” were historic contributions to evolutionary theory.  Science was later able to use evolution for gene therapies.

Biology was described to divide into four groups that include 1) biological organization from molecular to cell organization to population, 2) Taxonomic group which includes fields in zoology, all animals, ornithology (birds), herpetology (reptiles and amphibians), 3) Theoretical biology and 4) experimental evolution .

Evolutionary biology emerged as an academic discipline in the 1930’s.  Biology has departments such as molecular and cell biology, ecology, evolutionary biology which were said to have replaced botany and zoology.  There are examples given of statistician, Ronald Fisher 1890-1962, who it is believed to have helped form modern evolutionary synthesis of Mendelian genetics and natural selection.

JBS Haldone 1892-1964 helped create the field of population genetics. Using the Scientific Method one learns how to observe, how to experiment or how to calculateMethod is from the Greek “methodos” and as to do with the “pursuit of knowledge” or a way of inquiry or a way of pursuit.  “Method has to do with a way of doing in accordance with a plan.”

Evidence of science journals support evolution’s claim as an “academic field” are:  “Genome Biology & Evolution,” “Molecular Ecology,” “Proceedings of the Royal Society of London,” “The American Naturalist,” “Theoretical Population Biology,” “Trends in Ecology & Evolution,” “Annual Review of Ecology,” “Evolution and Systematics,””Genetics and PLos Genetics.”

Further expanding on evolution as a subtitle under biology which has the following sub categories:  artificial selection, comparative anatomy, computational phylogenetics, evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics, evolutionary neuroscience, evolutionary physiology, evolutionary psychology, genetics, the origin of species, phylogenetic comparative methods, quantitative genetics, selective breeding.

An argument for empiricism and evolution is justified as using the “scientific method” within evolution subtitles such as “quantitative genetics,” or while operating under the academic discipline of biology.  The determination of evolution has to do with investigation and developmental processes which compares them and different organisms.  “Life History Theory,” suggests that evolutionary approach is key to “current research in organismal biology and ecology.”

“Annotation of genes and their function relies heavily on comparative evolutionary approaches.”

Evidence of field is included in science Journals such as:  “Journal of Evolutionary Biology,” “BMC Evolutionary Biology,” Sub categories: “Systematic Biology,” “Molecular Biology,” “Molecular Biology & Evolution.”

Evolutionary forces include:  1) natural selection, 2) sexual selection,3) genetic drift, 4) genetic draft, 5) developmental constraints, 6) bias, 7) bio geography.

There are many evolutionary theories including the “theory of molecular evolution.”  “Biologists try to infer which genes have been under strong selection by detecting selective sweeps.”

One possible hypothesis was that “evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in modern evolutionary synthesis.”  The idea was for biologists to ask “what happened and when,” have methods and draw conclusions.

Another key term coined was for “genetic architecture” that is concerned with 1) adaptation and 2) speciation.

“What happened and when” uses “palaeobiology, systematics and phylogenetics.” “Evolution was largely concerned with genetics and what do genes do and changes that happen to genes, how many genes and at what point is mutation or gene duplication or genome duplication?”

Hereditability was another concept that used the genome and performed wide association studies. Evolution studies uses DNA data sequencing and applies it to evolution theory. 

ID or Intelligent Design was a way of interpreting data. 

Scientific arguments were often litigated and not based on assumptuous claims, but “conclusions arrival and vast evidence.”

“Designed for life” or “just right for life” or “how biology confirms our intuition that life is designed,” by Douglas Fox.  Or rather “how new things originate or origins theory or with intelligent causation.”

“The Scientific Method is the process by which scientists collectively and over time endeavor to construct a non arbitrary representation of the world.” The Scientific Method uses a non-biased or non-prejudiced methods to portray versions of the world.

It was stated that “evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on earth…these processes include natural selection, common descent and speciation.”

Method itself in this case is also compelling when looking at the  examples of the teaching of languages  (Immersion Method), Pedagogy in general, Suzuki violin, architecture which may utilize various strategies including renderings and plans.  There are methods for presenting research and methods for writing papers.  Consult books like “Technical and Professional Writing,” or “Technical Communication” by Mark Markel which frames many methods for a variety of specific professional writings.

References:

 

 

Book Review: “Complex Knowledge, Studies in Organizational Epistemology”

Book Review:  “Complex Knowledge, Studies in Organizational Epistemology”

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

A review of “Complex Knowledge: Studies in Organizational Epistemology” by Haridimos Tsoukas provided a gripping portrayal of the issues involved in what is desired as a “field” rather than that which is-knowledge only based- of organizational studies and management research.

Tsoukas immediately grabs the hand of the reader and engages them with a riveting tale about fluxus theory which describes how the world flows, “fluxes”, “changes and how it’s sensitive to things such as context, time, beliefs, desires, power and loops.” He explains how the world is in fact an “open world” and not a closed world and goes on to develop the dialog into a parallel with the chaos and the cosmos. He goes deeper to make comparisons to “ecological theories” eg. fluxus in nature and still further to perhaps “Austrian Economics” or the diversity of mankind in terms of ethnography.  The research unravels and one is left connecting dots and looking at the evidence.

Tsoukas intended to make three key points in his book about complex knowledge, 1) regarding tacit knowledge, claims and adoption of ideas, 2) chaosmos, the mixture of chaos with cosmos parallel, and 3) in regards to the connected meta knowledge.

Tsoukas was concerned with “agency” in an organization, and “how organizational knowledge is embraced and informs practice.” Tsoukas advice to his reader was based on Weick’s quote was to “complicate yourself.”

Tsoukas goes on to break down research about the information marketplace quoting the MIT Media Lab and linking information with communication eg. computer and telephone as a new network system and subsequent knowledge system. The research transforms into a chilling thriller when Tsoukas begins to talk about how things turn into information and how things are experienced without being in close proximity. What stirs the reader later was the statement of “information at your fingertips.” The reader experiences both fear of and excitement for potential knowledge.

A few problems highlighted in the book describe all information turning into objects that are contained, stored and retrieved, the caricaturization of mankind in information systems and “observed purpose in information.”  Observed purpose in information related to an example where a condom manufacturer desired numeric data on the number of people having sexual intercourse.  For example, one could look at the population count and further to those in relationships or married to establish a statistic of likelihood or perhaps buried within the information marketplace information that is retrieved for purposes beyond “observed purposes.”

The cognitive wheels turning, in terms of organizational epistemology, how do all the dots connect?  One problem may exist where Tsoukas has justified evidence regarding “potential and absent.”  The evidence suggests the “finite” representation is never complete and that there is more in “reserve.”  “That to be aware of potential is to become.”  The crux had to do with the need for potential and how things could be different and how information was confined to what has been-“as are, not as might be.” The build-up of the book describes entrapment in the status quo by scholars who may fail to recognize potential.

Tsoukas research rejected rationalist epistemological approaches in favor of “post rationalism.” One goal of the book is to look at the nature of knowledge within an organizational context inclusive of “vocabulary, practice, enactment, mutual constitution, improvisation, and how an organization justifies what they know.”

One problem that organizations face is “overcoming dominant forms of knowing.” Tsoukas desires to replace dominant forms with complex forms of knowing thus the parallel to chaosmos and fluxus and ultimately a “theory of complexity.”  It becomes the sensitization of an organization to context, time, change, events, beliefs, desires etc.  Tsoukas presented an Empiricist model rejecting earlier Rationalist models which he wished to graduate from “within the world and within tradition” to discover “flow, flux, change.”

Early philosophers such as Heraclitus were also highlighted in the book. Heraclitus is a Greek Philosopher whose research had to do with change being fundamental to the Universe. Heraclitus has the famous quote that “no man ever steps in the same river twice.”  Part of Heraclitus “claim to fame” was that he “taught himself by questioning himself.[1]

“Diogenes relates that as a boy Heraclitus had said he “knew nothing” but later claimed to “know everything.”[14] His statement that he “heard no one” but “questioned himself,” can be placed alongside his statement that “the things that can be seen, heard and learned are what I prize the most.”[15][2]

               Heraclitus is perhaps the father of philosophy. Empiricism was concerned with a posteriori and more investigative models that were gained by experience. [3] Rationalist was concerned with a priori as if that which is from God or innate methods. Tsoukas overtly rejected innate concepts from Rationalism which his alignment with Heraclitus suggests.

A beautiful point the book makes has to do with the description of poetic praxeology.  The 7 points in poetic praxeology listed were: 1) motives in human action, 2) influence of past, 3) transmutation into new forms in present 4) opaque intentionality, 5) chance allowed events, 6) feedback loops, 7) context inescapable.  Tsoukas described “all humans as in fluxus.”

The book generally relies on social scientific and philosophical research to support its claims.  What becomes paramount in the book is a subtle goal about “how creative action arises.”

Useful philosophers listed in the book as relevant to Tsoukas research are: Bergson, Dewey, Gadaner, Heidegger, James, Lakeoff, Tyre, Polanzi, Toulmin, Taylor, Whitehead, Wittgenstein.

The book not an “art book” or “poetry book” but references popular or obscure concepts relevant to both.  Fluxus in Tsoukas book of “Complex Knowledge” whirls and dazzles and could buttress conceptual work related to fluxus in high art.   The book presents research which could become the frame work or seed of emergent fields of study which were formally housed in epistemology courses or in dialogs about knowledge.  “Complex Knowledge” presents well-crafted research, stylishly modeled after Konl Weick’s style of research. “Complex Knowledge” published on Oxford Press is very fine reading with lovely chaotic imagery, language, and relevant content.

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heraclitus

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heraclitus

[3] Markie, P. (2015). Rationalism vs. Empiricism in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (Summer 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).