Happy & Existential Birthday to Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu May 28, 2019

Happy & Existential Birthday to Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu May 28, 2019

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

This year I was planful about my journey forward which is one of my favorite pastimes.

I thought I would craft an original career as a scholar, artist, international teacher, diplomat and author.

I envisioned teaching parts of the year abroad.  I imagined myself either starting a school, running a department, or teaching a semester here and a semester maybe in Ghana or Mexico.

I adopted the new vision to be an “international teacher.”

The other thought I had was how an artist succeeds.  I think there are plucking grounds for ripe and primed artists via artist residencies.  I was at the Studio Museum in Harlem and The Saatchi Gallery showed up to see artists in residence.  In Europe, there are residencies like the Rijksakademie that also connect artists to European galleries.  Artists in art residencies have completed BFA and MFA, have a body of graduate and professional work, professional studio-they are vetted artists and ripe for the picking.  Also their associates within these programs are other artists that become colleagues and make introductions and form their creative circle.  You get mentorship at residencies that polish the artist.  Perhaps that is something someone like me should do, both go to residencies or perhaps run one in Michigan or in Ghana.

What I think galleries do or should do is keep databases of their groups or pools of artists and keep building on these artist profiles and send them briefs for appropriate shows.  So artists are revolving in different shows.

We need in America more residencies for artists where artists are connected to galleries.  There are new emerging markets for online art sales like with the Saatchi Gallery that are pursuing high and low strategies and price points with print and original sales-where everyone walks out with something.

One thing that many art departments failed to recognize is the need for art writing to bring art to life where the viewer has more information and ability to engage.  The Sotheby’s Institute has an online certificate course in art writing.

I am still having many thoughts about giving and philanthropy.  There need to be backbones in communities.  You have to know when not to be poor but to find a way to make yourself rich because you’re the backbone.  When you need to provide jobs and shouldn’t stop thinking until you have achieved appropriate wealth and vision strategy.  When you have not occasional monies, but regular monies and look to models like the Salvation Army that runs big thrift stores to power shelters etc.

I am thinking about successful systems.  I am thinking about when art provides  “ideas and inspiration” and when art is “functional” and provides a viable solution to a problem or then, is it no longer art?

An existential birthday for me has been buying spiritual books every year around my birthday.  I got: “Ceremony,” by Leslie Marmon Silko, “The Masters and The Spiritual Path, Climb the Highest Mountain Series,” By Mark Prophet, “Foundations of the Path,” Mark. L. Prophet, “The Path to Attainment,” By Mark L. Prophet.

This year I gave myself a ton of gifts which was a thrill.  They are still on the way to me.  I got myself a “birthday shirt” which is light blue with daisy embroidery.  I ordered a bicycle pump and will start cycling again this season when it arrives.  I got a picture of the ocean. I got a risograph print from artist Ryan Molloy.  I got a piano theory book.  I played “Happy Birthday” on the piano several times.  I am attempting to memorize the notes.   I ordered three pairs of shoes, 2 summer sandals and a pair of green New Balance.  I got tart pans.  I baked and baked:  Brownies a la mode, peanut butter cookies, poppy seed muffins and lemon bars.  I got serving trays and a large bowl good enough for paella.  I imagined my future dinner parties.  I got a pink sheet.  I got a house cleaning house dress that is pastel/ carnation/ frosting colors.  I got a nightgown.  The nightgown reminded me of dogs and fireplaces.

My mother sent me some money.  Another friend in Chicago sent a blender for some margaritas.

I got Bruce Lee Video’s, Willy Wonka, vintage Disney, I got Chinese Music, some musicals and foreign language tapes.  I have been loving both cassette tape and videotape.  I got some plastic containers to organize my school work station.  I got a new curling iron.  I got some “Aveda Stress-Fix” oil perfume that smells divine.  I got rose water spray.

I applied to a writing program and researched another writing program and both filled me with the joy of anticipation.  I got a “Pocket Style Manual” by Diana Hacker (writing) that covers clarity, grammar, punctuation and mechanics, MLA/APA/Chicago/CSE, usage and grammatical terms.

I got an “Intermediate Algebra” book by D. Franklin Wright/Bill D. New.  I am a big fan of the highly useful algebra.  I thought about books, informational books, culturally defining books like “Castaneda” or “Wild Irish Rose” or “Arabian Nights.”  I thought about Creative Non-Fiction and Poetry.  I thought about placement within knowledge.  I am working on a book about Interdisciplinary Studies.  I thought about learning.  I thought about auditory then recognition in early learning and throughout life and in advertising, this strange link, how one comes to know, how one comes to have.  I thought about analysis and how it makes you way smarter.  There’s tacit knowledge, but there’s graduated and developed thought.  Becoming a thinker.

I started a book log this year.  Our local Ypsilanti library is recommending that children read about 1000 books a year.  I am aiming for longer books maybe 388 books this year.

Those are some of my main thoughts on this 2019 birthday.  I am really happy to be so peaceful and serene.  I spray rose water on my hair to catch the beauty of the rose to it.

An Approach to Art Making #2

An Approach to Art Making #2

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Art could be divided into groups such as:  supply, craft and manufacturing artist.

Supply relates to those things derivative of materials and supplies that could be purchased, for example, from an art supply store.  A good example of a supply oriented art work may be one that incorporates nibs, brushes and ink like Oriental Paintings or Bonsai garden paintings with fan brushes or outdoor art stations.

Craft may be things oriented to craftsmanship, from an artisan or may even be home spun. Examples may be things like burning into leathers, making candles, or a bricklayers training in tile, marble and terrazzo and making monuments or perhaps building engraved picture frames, cake decoration, or making clay monsters, or a holiday decoration or a cut out turkey made of paper or maybe some type of whittler.

A Manufacturing Artist may make sophisticated art works in a studio or factory based environment inclusive of sculptural works or electronic works or even professional frescoes via fresco printers and architectural works or installations or programmatic/technological works, or even the museum itself and mostly extremely fine art and almost all high art.

Culture is another distinct road in approaches to art making.  Dedication to culture may inspire one to develop a culture or work on a subculture.  An artist may become concerned with cultural branding or contributing an aspect of art or art practice that develops their communities culture.  A cultural offering may set the tone for a business or enterprise or an organization, branding it and guiding its organizational epistemology or setting the tone for employees.

High art practice is often engaged in a curatorial based art making where a group of artists may utilize the same photo to curate a group exhibition.  The photos are sometimes based on iconic imagery or indicative of an era.  Groups of artists and curators may form a temporary or permanent collective group.

What a scholar might find really riveting, that is perhaps buried now is the initial use or heading of “The Arts” that was inclusive of science etc.  In the early days of education, there were three subject’s religion, the arts and medicine.

Use of acronyms in art can be a way of “big talking” -small or formulaic. Acronyms like “HISS” that means “highlight, spotlight and showcase” become important or acronyms like “Quepine” that means “Question, Proverb and News” can be used for art making.

Black Magic is also indicative of a kind of wielding or wizardry or technology use or logic. Black magic use can be something like programming things with thoughts by thinking over them, or digging holes or making connections between objects or talking to things or taking readings or working with numbers like 81 as Magic and Flight where you see in the eight a Spider and the one, a wing.  Black Magic brings as James Baldwin coined it, “force vitale,” to art among other things much like the Chinese technique of calling “chi” or soul or “charming,” or animating like placing eyes on something.

One may draw a right angle with a diagonal cross thread through to create an art technique using perhaps era or time. It’s possible to grid or work on a time-based series using a right angle quick method.

“Era and Charm,” incorporates a black magic technique and has been very successful for making things like teapots.

Another interesting technique used by artists is “what does that make you think of?”  This technique has to do with when you ask continuous questions of yourself or someone else leading to a trail of words away from a root word.  For example, if I said I have an apple, what does that make you think of?  You said red, and then I said what does red make you think of?  You said blood etc. and on and on and connected the trail back to apple to ascertain some unique, hidden, connected or passive meaning.  With this dialogue, one would begin to build their artworks from a kind of “art game playing.”

Another breakthrough in technology that has gotten into art is “the feed.”  The feed has to do with when you send through a host, an agent or program.  The feed can be music or emotion etc. Feeds or programs are particularly interesting in textile printing where a print may be made distinct when it is impacted by a program and made, for example, exciting or sensual, animated or dotted.

Perhaps a breakthrough in approaches to art making is the “eclectic gallery district” or the placement of art or the combining of supply, craft, manufacturing art etc.  All the usual pomp of art but inclusive of perhaps a “home sweet home sign maker” or portrait district or maker galleries or antiques or fiber arts or a variety of textile galleries-eclecticism in art may also be a mainstay. Eclecticism in art may create a greater ability of “treasure trove” and individuality within the home or arts final destination.

Really ultimately what makes or can make a really good fine artist is lots and lots of programs, lots and lots of technology. Artech can be many things including sound technologies or opera voice pieces, or holograph technology or film modulation technology etc.

Up to Snuff #32: Book List, Ancient Writings with Names of Historical Universities

Up to Snuff #32:  Book List: Ancient Writings with Names of Historical Universities

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Physics 1-8 Aristotle

On Generation & Perishing, Aristotle

De Caelo (On the Heavens), Aristotle

Meteorology, Aristotle

De Generation et Corruptine, Aristotle

On coming to be and passing away, Aristotle

Ackrill, JL  Change and Aristotle’s Theological Argument

Bodnar, Istvan, Movers and Elemental Motions in Aristotle

Bodnar, Istvan, Aristotle’s Natural Philosophy

Starry Messenger, Galileo

Two New Sciences (Physics) Galileo

De Motu Cordis (On the Motion of the Heart)

Le Monde (The World) Descartes

Micrographia, Hooke

Dialog on the Two Chief World Systems (Aristotle, Copernicus)

Principia Philosophiae Naturelis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) Isaac Newton

Dr Rerum Natura ( On the Nature of Things) Lucretius

Elements of Geometry, Euclid

Almagest, By Claudius Ptolemy

On the Sacred Disease (Epilepsy)

On the Nature of Man, Hippocrates

Aphorisms, Hippocratic Works

Physicists, Aristotle

Scala Natural, Aristotle

Corpus Aphorisms, Aristotle


Meditations, Emperor Marcus Aurelius

On the Use of the Parts, Galen

Al-Jabr, Arab Mathematician, Algebra Book

Cannon of Medicine, Avicenna

House of Wisdom (Bagdad)

Plato’s Academy, Athens

University of Bologna






(Theology, Law, Medicine, Arts, Science)

Paraclesus, Anatomy & Astronomy

Versalius  Anatomical Illustrations of Human Body, “De Humani Corporis Fabrica” on the structure of the human body

De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, (Revolution of the heavenly bodies), Copernicus

The Origin of Continents and Oceans, By Alfred Wegener

Thesaurus Geographicus, Abraham Ortelius

Of Dignity and The Advancement of Learning, Bacon

Novem Organum, Aristotle

Discourse on the Method, Descartes

Dialogue Concerning Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemic & Copernican, Galileo

Two New Sciences, Galileo

The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, By Sir Isaac Newton


Gower, B. (1996). Scientific Method : A Historical and Philosophical Introduction

Bynum, William, A Little History of Science, Yale University Press, 2012

Bodnar, Istvan, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), .

What is significant about the 2005 Kansas Board of Education hearings regarding evolution and Intelligent Design?

By, Afua Osei-Bonsu

Question 1)

Why is Intelligent Design (ID) untestable?  ID has to do with how do new things originate?  According to the “Nature of Science,” By Christine V. McClelland,[1]“Creationism, Creation Science and Intelligent Design (ID) are spiritual concepts” that involve events of phenomena.” Science has long had conflict with spiritual concepts that are not necessarily grounded in the scientific method, are not testable and are based on the belief in supernatural events.[2]

 Question 2)

“What was the big deal about the 2005 Kansas State Board of Education rewording of science?”

The Kansas State Board of Education held hearings about how to define science and how to teach science with conflicting evidence including that of evolution, Darwinism and Intelligent Design. [3]

Teachers were in turmoil while religious and political groups promoted ideas about Creationism and Intelligent Design that aligned with their group’s ideas including those supporting supernatural events within their framing of origin that competed with popular biological and scientific ideas based on fact and perhaps things such as DNA Helix.[4]  What was to be taught in high schools and posted on websites like the popular website detailing “what is science?” to children:  (http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/babysfirstresearch)

The 2005 Kansas State Board of Education could actually unveil a long term “shroud of ignorance” that published and promoted to students mythical and supernatural ideas that misinformed and mislead students to base their education on something that was not testable or rooted in facts.

The Board of Education settled on teaching a “controversy method,” and “critical analysis of evolution.”  One goal of the outcome was to help students make “informed decisions.”[5]

Perhaps the case presented a juncture in which students may begin to question deeply existentialism, dogma and life origins.  It is unclear if schools will ever present real, tangible, evidence and fact based education.

[1] McClelland, Christine V, The Nature of Science and the Scientific Method

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_evolution_hearings


[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_evolution_hearings­­­



What the Top 202 Ways to Accumulate Monies for School are in 2017

The top 201 ways I know of to accumulate monies for school are:

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

1) FAFSA, www. fafsa.ed.gov, Stafford Student Loans, Pell Grant, Perkins Loan, SEOG Grant, Teach Grant, the federal grants and loans for undergraduate and graduate school

2) AmeriCorps Vista 1 year, $5770 grant for school

3) CO OP-work part time in the field to defray costs

4) Departmental and college grants

5) Scholarships Financial Aid Office, full ride, grants, transfer, community college transfer grants, recurring scholarships

6) Student org scholarships $1900

7) Foreign Service Fellowships, ask Diplomat in Residence for suggestions ~$37,500 or consular sponsorships for art exhibitions etc

8) MSHDA First Time Home Owners, MSU Extension Meeting, register for an “IDA Savings Account” with matching funds for school or house up to $5000

9) Blog Stores, Shopify, Product Sales

10) Book Publication

11) Graduate Teach or Grad Assistant

12) Chavez Teaching Scholarships

13) Save in 529 Accounts, stash for a PHD

14) Learn direct from manufacturers such as Point Carre or Pantogram Embroidery

15) http://www.afford.com, payment plans, tuition management systems

16) Multilateral savings plans life insurance, several savings accounts, 529, 401 K, rollover IRA, Disability Accounts

17) http://www.finaid.org

18) http://www.fastweb.com

19) Military Benefits-www.afrotc.com/scholarships (Air Force & ROTC)

20) http://www.collegescholarhships.com

21) Gibill.va.gov

22) http://www.michigan.gov/mistudentaid, grants and scholarship search

23) http://www.michigan.gov/setwithmet   Michigan Education Trust

24) http://www.misaves.com   Michigan Education Savings Program (MESP)

25) Rhodes Scholar

26) Radcliff Fellow, Harvard

27) Endowment formulas

28) Skilled Trade Grants

29) Tuition Reimbursement

30) Consolidation of student loans helps some times

31) Blogging

32) Organized parties, graduation parties, coming of age celebrations with nice invitations

33) Family Trusts

34) Foundation Center, “Requests for Proposals” (RFP) for students

35) Work and go method

36) Work at home or “cockpit” work, outsourcing

37) Paid Internships

38) Company Scholarships

39) Zines, chap books, cook books

40) Apprenticeships

41)  Acquire expertise or professional skills to train, teach, lecture, tutor, or work

42) Sponsorship

43) Governmental Scholarships

44) Local Congressional Representatives Scholarships for region or state or federal

45) SBA Loan or Seed Grant

46) Schools that give Apple laptops to students (Full Sail)

47) Leap Frog Skills

48) Meet Up’s

49) Refined art skills like portraiture, painting, photography

50) School Foundations

51) Stratford Career Institute for basic career skills

52) Boot Camps and full immersion

53) Create value with information

54) Manufacturing

55) Working in general and savings plans, dedicated savings accounts

56) Direct Withdraw

57) Cleaning

58) Think Tanks

59) Publication of thesis or dissertation

60) Community Television or TV Shows or Talk Shows

61) Student newspapers or Magazine Submissions

62) Certified Non Profit Professional or CNP

63) Clubs, organizations and memberships that carry opportunities

64) Awards

65) Grants

66) Basic Human Account or Birthright Package

67) Life Insurance

68) Any job and afford.com, or your schools payment plan

69) Prints or dissemination in general

70) Acting, modeling, private artist model,  or class artist model eg. portraits or sculpture

71) Grandparents and parents, older siblings will often help

72) Kitsch parties, Tupperware, Christmas Pageant Sales, admissions

73) Research Grants

74) Advertising

75) Product or Service

76) Rentals

77) For Hire

78) Private Lessons

79) Night Sewing

80) DJing

81) Selling companies, writing a business plan or sale of an idea or concept

82) Work nights

83) Train to be personal trainer

84) Fulfillment

85) Start an organization

86) Be a Chef or Personal Chef

87) Bud Tender or Dispensary

88) Work in the Government or for State Department

89) Taxi Driver

90) Research Surveys

91) Wait Tables

92) Learn volume practices, steam cabinets for volume food service

93) Concerts, recitals, readings, lectures, tours

94) Self Publish

95) MIT Open Source

96) Ecommerce

97) Mortgage or Renovations Monies

98) Promotional Items

99) Events

100) Prosperous Zero

101) Make finery

102) Imports/Exports

103) Shops, restaurants, franchises, drive thru’s

104) Serve the community

105) Pharmaceuticals

106) Supply Chain

107) Plumbing

108) Electrician

109) Work Study

110) Childcare, nanny, Governess

111) Landscaping

112) Mowing, when grass grows you make money

113) Use Home Depot Plans to construct play houses or projects

114) Put up Christmas lights

115) Murals

116) Holiday products or services, entertainment, events, gatherings

117) University Research Studies

118) Volunteer Work

119) Work in a car dealership

120) Audio Visual

121) Tech Support

122) Repairs

123) Trainer of new tech, cell phones, social media etc.

124) Flyers, pamphlets, college bulletins

125) Rehearsal studios and private lessons

126) Art works

127) Article submission, syndication, or reprints

128) Crowd Funding

129) Social Media Promotions

130) Go into parents fields for contacts

131) Database, online rolodex, enters email, list serve

132) Administrative Assistant

133) Staffing agencies (UM Temporary, Manpower, Resource MFG)

134) Build a repository of knowledge

135) Go to the library

136) Build a home library

137) Refinance

138) Poetry

139) College Career Sites

140) Film

141) Library of Congress, building collections or documentation

143) a US Artist

144) Pedagogy

145) Exhibitions

146) Business Plan

147) Travel Writer

148) Critic

149) Tour Guide

150) Work at the hospital or in the pharmacy

151) Graduate Assistant

152) Kabbage.com  business expansion loans

153) SBA Business Loans

154) Fulfillments

155) Out of mortgage or Renovations Loans

156)  Grants to school for STEM

157)  Publications, columnist, freelance article and journal submissions

158) Inheritance

159) Trickle Down where older sibling pays for next in line

160) Franchise & Group of colleagues running a franchise, Teen Franchises

161) Go to President,/Government with A’s and Intentions or plans for contribution

162) Parents 529 Investment, Parental Retirement Accounts or savings

163) Work in parent’s business

164) bank loan

165) Sell postcards, key chains, promotional items

166) Self Publish

167) Valuable information

168) Investments, live off interest

169) Certifications (life guard, boating, swim instructor, personal trainer, plumbing etc)

170) Scholarship Databases finaid, fastweb, schools

171) Do things other people don’t want to do

173) Technology, programming, social media, apps, links, software engineering, IT

174) Training others

175) Lots of hours and manufacturing

176) Temp to hire

177) Executive Assistant

178) Two or three jobs

179) Jobsites, like Michigan Talent, Indeed, school sites, Craigslist

180) 403B, 401K, 529, savings accounts, learn to save, portfolio of savings accounts

181) Never taking out credit card accounts helps to have wealth above zero

182) Art Fair Circuits

183) Magazines

184) Prints

185) Diversity of Skill

186) Loops, Links, Webinars, Online Ads, Ecommerce Degrees

187) Bands, music, sheet music, composition

188) Theater, ticket sales, shows, performance in general

189) Graphic Design/Print Media

190) Assembly

191) Teaching in Online Schools

192) Teaching Community College

193) Quick Skill and resume building that helps to generate more income sometimes via volunteer & internship, classes, orgs

194) Become a Founder or CEO

195) Resume Writing

196) Business Plan

197) Gallery Representation or Art Dealer

198) Residencies

199) Big Box or Fortune 200 or Fortune 500 benefits and matching funds, tuition reimbursements

200) Product sales

201) RFP, Request for Proposals, eg. foundation center.org

202) Tax credits




















Up to Snuff #15: Definition of a Professional

A Definition of a Professional 

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

A professional could be the equivalent of that directional decision or epiphany one has when they desire “expertise” in a subject or field.  The other day in a technology role one woman thought perhaps she will become an “apps expert” or an apprentice in skilled trades or research the history of Santeria.  Many blocks of knowledge present opportunity to win expertise and become a “professional.”

A professional could be someone like the example in this week’s readings about Edward Rolf Tufte, who may have become so “professional” that he offers a one day course, writes books and works as a Yale professor and sculptor.[1]  Tufte’s example illustrates mastership in several fields such as “data” or “elegant design” which is exhibited by quality products, services, and dissemination-when the quality of ones tasks, results and ability achieves a degree of professionalism.  An indicator of a “professional” may be also the alignment with teaching something they know, or having achieved professorship or become a trainer.

Professionalism elicits respect.  Professionalism may be characteristic of a “singular effort,” “practiced discipline and skill”[2].  Many professionals find that their positions require them to “write in response to a problem,”[3] ask questions, write on diverse subjects and in diverse professional styles.  Professionals are also said to require professional meetings and often write for and read professional journals.

Professionals when they start to break down problems that become prominent in their roles need skills for problem solving.  Problems can be broken down into two elements called “technical” or “fundamental workings of the professional discipline” or two “rhetorical” “the “communication of workings about what has been done and will be done about them to the people interested.”[4]

A professional may also likely avoid disputes, arguing, fighting or undesirable comments about performance.  Traditional professionals study in many schools of knowledge and achieve degrees from associate to Ph.D.  [5]

When looking in Latin for roots to professional or professor or “proficio,” “things like public declaration  of one’s name, property or occupation, authority, expert, authoritative, of persons who make progress, advance, gain ground-maybe even literally, to be of use, to assist, to help, to declare oneself anything.”[6]

A professional may also be someone who keeps society “running well, effectively, efficiently, humanely.” [7] Professional has also been described as a “social notion.” [8] Professional is also described as “high standards of performance, accuracy, thoroughness, honesty and integrity.”[9]

A professional may utilize sophisticated tools, software or hardware, or specific trade resources and in the example of “Latin prose composition as suggested by Cassell’s Latin Dictionary, regarded as an integral part of classical scholarship the student should refer back to the Latin-English for further illumination.”[10]

[1]Smith, Fran, Stanford Magazine, “Intelligent Designs: When Information needs to be communicated Edward Tufte Demands both Truth and Beauty” Page 1


[2] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[3] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[4] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[5]Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work,  2002, pages 3-5.

[6] Simpson, D.P., Cassell’s Latin Dictionary, 1968, page 477.

[7] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[8] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[9] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[10]Simpson, D.P., Cassell’s Latin Dictionary, Latin-English, Wiley Publishing, 1968, Preface, p. vii

Up to Snuff #3: “A Fundamental Writers Desk Top Reference Book List” Revised 08/06/2019

Up to Snuff #3: Revised (08/06/2019)  “A Fundamental Desk Top Reference Book List for Writers”

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu


Newton’s Telecom Dictionary, By Harry Newton, Flatiron Books, 2007

Webster’s New World Collegiate Dictionary, Fourth Edition, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ

The American Heritage Dictionary of The English Language, fourth edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston & New York

Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford

The Grosset Webster Dictionary (Childrens)

Harrap’s Shorter French & English Dictionary

501 Spanish Verbs

Dictionaries of the World

Diccionario Sigmer (Spanish Dictionary of synonyms)

Style Manuals/Grammar

MLA Style, APA Style, Chicago Style

Microsoft Manual of Style

MLA Handbook Eighth Edition (Modern Language Association)

APA Publication Manual of American Psychological Association

Understanding Style, Practical Ways to Improve Your Writing, Joe Glassar, Oxford University Press, Jan 2015

The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation

A Guide to Composition Pedagogies, by Gary Tate, Amy Rupiper Taggart, Oxford University Press, 2013

Doing Grammar, by Max Morenberg, Oxford University Press, 2013,

The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press, 2003

The Associated Press Style Book

Variety of Style books from newspapers

The Elements of Style, By William Strunk, Jr &  E.B. White, The Macmillan Company


Studies in the History of the English Language VI : Evidence and Method in Histories of English. by Michael. Adams, Laurel J. Brinton, R. D. Fulk

Format:eBook  Publication year:  2015

Studies in language origins. Volume 1 by Jan. Wind

Format: eBook, Publication year: 1989

AP Style Book Online

A Writer’s Reference 6th Edition By Diana Hacker

Hacker, Diana, Research and Documentation in the Electronic Age

Hacker, Diana, Pocket Style Manual

Booth, Wayne, Gregory Colomb, and Joseph Williams, The Craft of Research

Lunsford, Andrea and Robert Connors, Easy Writer, A Pocket Guide

Murray, Donald M., The Craft of Revision

Williams, Joseph, Style:  Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace

Zinsser, William, On Writing Well

Viking Book of Aphorisms:  A Personal Selection  W.H. Arden


Garners Modern English Usage

Harper Dictionary of Contemporary Usage, by William and Morris, Harper & Row, 1975

Dictionary of Problem Words & Expressions, Mcgraw Hill Book Company, 1975

A Careful Writer: A Modern Guide to English Usage, By Theodore M. Bernstein, Free Press 1965

More Language That Needs Watching, By Theodore M. Bernstein, Channel Press 1962

Watch Your Language, By Theodore Bernstein, Atheneum, 1958

The Word, by Rene Cappon, The Associated Press, 1982

Modern American Usage by Wilson Follet, Hill & Wang, 1966

A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Oxford University Press 1965

Fowler’s Modern English Usage, By H.W. Fowler & R.W. Burchfield Oxford University Press, 2004


Semantics in Generative Grammar (Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics) by Irene Heim

Language in Thought and Action Fifth Edition By, Hayakawa and Alan R. Hayakawa

Semantics Introducing Linguistics By John Saeed

Semantics (Palgrove Modern Linguistics) by Kate Kearns

Meaning & Language, An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics (Oxford Textbooks in Linguistics) By Alan Cruse

Semantics:  A Course book By James R. Hartford and Michael B. Smith

Meaning:  A Slim guide to Semantics Oxford Linguistics By Paul Elbourne

Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist, Second Edition:  Effective Modeling in RDFS and OWL by Dean Allemang and James Hendler

Semantic Perception:  How the Illusion of a Common Language Arises and Persists by Jody Azzouni

Drive Yourself Sane:  Using Uncommon Sense of General Semantics, Third Edition, by Susan Presby Kodish and Bruce I. Kodish


Syntax:  A Generative Introduction By Andrew Carnie

Sin & Syntax:  How to Craft Wicked Good Prose By Constance Hale

The Syntax Handbook Everything You Learned About Syntax But Forgot By, Laura M. Justice

The Art of Syntax:  Rhythm of thought, Rhythm of Song By ellen Bryant Voight

Artful Sentences, Syntax as Style  By Virginia Tufte

The Syntax Workbook:  A Companion to Carnies Syntax By Andrew Carnie

Understanding Syntax by Maggie Tallerman

Syntax:  a Minimalist Introduction By Andrew Radford


Introductory Phonology By, Bruce Hayes

Introducing Phonology Cambridge Introductions to Language and Linguistics by, David Odden

Phonology a Coursebook by, Robert Kennedy

The Sounds of Language:  An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology by, Elizabeth C. Zsiga

Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology From Concepts to Transcription By Jacqueline Bauman-Waengler

Articulation & Phonology in Speech Sound Disorders:  A Clinical Focus 5th Edition By, Jacqueline Bauman-Waengler

NAVLIPI Volume 1, A New Universal, Script (Alphabet) Accommodating the Phonemic Idiosyncrasies of all Words By, Prasanna Chandra Sekhar & Nicholas Ostler

An Introduction to Phonetics & Phonology by John Clark + Colin Yallop

English Phonetics and Phonology Paperwork with Audio CD’s (2):  A Practical Course By, Peter Roach

Phonology (Palgrove Modern Linguistics) By, Phillip Carr & Jean-Pierre Montreuil

Introduction to Russian Phonology & Word Structure By, William Hamilton

Sanskrit Manual:  A Quick Reference Guide to Phonology and Grammar of Classical Sanskrit

Applied English Phonology by, Mehmet Yavas

The Phonology & Morphology of Arabic The Phonology of the Worlds Languages By, Janet C. E. Watson

Phonetically based Phonology By Bruce Hayes and Robert Kirchner

Understanding Phonology Understanding Language By, Carlos Gussenboven & Haille Jacobs

Generative Phonology Description and Theory By, Michael Kenstowicz & Charles Kissebert

Phonology:  An Introduction to Basic Concepts, Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics By Roger Lass

Introducing Phonetics & Phonology By Mike Davenport & S.J. Hannahs

Phonology & Generative Grammar, (Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics No. 7) by, Michael Kenstowicz

Evolutionary Phonology:  The Emergence of Sound Patterns By, Juliette Blevins

Que Bien Suena:  Mastering Spanish Phonetics and Phonology (World Languages) By, Jeffrey D. Stokes


The Dictionary of Modern Proverbs By, Charles Clay Doyle

Encyclopedia of World Proverbs, Prentice Hall Encyclopedia of World Proverbs by, Wolfgang Mieder

Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs, Oxford Quick Reference By Jennifer Speake


The Elements of Journalism

Journalism Basics

Feature Writing, By Lee Friedlander

The Investigative Reporter’s Handbook:  A Guide to Documents, Databases and Techniques

News Writing and Reporting and Reporting for Today’s Media  B.D. Itule

The Longman Guide to Style and Writing on the Internet  M.C. Sammons

Film writing and selected journalism by James Agee

From fact to fiction : journalism & imaginative writing in America  by Shelley Fisher. Fishkin

American Earth : environmental writing since Thoreau  by Bill. McKibben, Al Gore

The New Journalism by Tom Wolfe, E. W. Johnson

The rhetoric of empire : colonial discourse in journalism, travel writing, and imperial administration  by David Spurr

Broadcast journalism : an introduction to news writing  by Mark W. Hall

News writing  by George A. Hough

Writing your journal article in 12 weeks : a guide to academic publishing success  by Wendy Laura. Belcher

News reporting and writing by Melvin. Mencher

Longman Dictionary of Mass Media Communication, Tracy D. Connors

 Letters & Correspondence

Letters  by Theodore Roosevelt, Elting Elmore. Morison, John Morton Blum, John J. Buckley

Correspondence by Herman Melville, Lynn. Horth

Holmes-Pollock letters; the correspondence of Mr. Justice Holmes and Sir Frederick Pollock, 1874-1932.

by Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.,, Frederick Pollock, Mark De Wolfe Howe

Letters. by Edward FitzGerald, J. M. Cohen

Correspondence.  by Jonathan Swift, Harold Herbert Williams Sir,

The habit of being : letters by Flannery. O’Connor, Sally. Fitzgerald

The letters of T.S. Eliot  by T. S. Eliot, Valerie. Eliot

Hour of gold, hour of lead; diaries and letters of Anne Morrow Lindbergh, 1929-1932.

by Anne Morrow Lindbergh, Mazal Holocaust Collection.

A treasury of the world’s great letters from ancient days to our own time : containing the characteristic and crucial communications, and intimate exchanges and cycles of correspondence, of many of the outstanding figures of world history, and some notable contemporaries

by M. Lincoln Schuster, Rouben Mamoulian Collection (Library of Congress)


Essays and reviews  by Edgar Allan Poe, Gary Richard Thompson

Millennial stages : essays and reviews, 2001-2005  by Robert Sanford Brustein

Toynbee and history; critical essays and reviews, by Ashley Montague

The Concept of a Philosophical Jurisprudence : Essays and Reviews 1926-51. by Michael. Oakeshott, Luke. O’Sullivan

The theory and practice of American literary naturalism : selected essays and reviews by Donald. Pizer

Hewing to experience : essays and reviews on recent American poetry and poetics, nature and culture

by Sherman. Paul

The vocabulary of a modern European state : Essays and Reviews 1953-1988. by Michael. Oakeshott

The eye of the story : selected essays and reviews by Eudora Welty

The responsibilities of the critic; essays and reviews.  by F. O. Matthiessen

Essays and reviews : the 1860 text and its reading by Victor Shea, William Whitla

Writing nature : Henry Thoreau’s Journal  by Sharon. Cameron

The Essay, By Crowell and Kolba


Academic Writing with Readings, Teresa Thonney, Oxford University Press

The Copy Editors Handbook

Serious Daring, Creative Writing in Four Genres, Lisa Roney, Oxford University Press, 2014

Modern American Poetry, Anthology of Modern American Poetry, Oxford University Press, 2014

Anthology of Contemporary American Poetry, Cary Nelson, Oxford University Press, 2014

How to Interpret Literature, Critical Theory for Literary and Cultural Studies, Robert Dale Parker, Oxford University Press, 2014

Advertising, A very Short Introduction, Winston Fletcher, Oxford University Press, 2010

Bestsellers, A Very short Introduction, John Sutherland, Oxford University Press, 2007

Food, A Reader for Writers, Deborah Holdstein, Columbia college Chicago, 2014

Humor, A Reader for Writers, Kathleen Volk Miller, Drexel University, Marion Wrenn, MY Abu Dhabi

Contemporary Fiction, A very Short Introduction, Robert Eaglestone, Oxford Unversity Press, 2013

Design, John Heskett, Hong Kong Polytechnic, 2005

English Literature, Jonathan Bate, University of Warwick, 2010

Ethics, Simon Blackburn, University of Cambridge, 2009

Globalization, Manfred Steger, University of Hawaii, 2013

Tragedy, Adrian Poole, University of Cambridge and Trinity College, 2005

Writing and Script, Andrew Robinson, Wolfson College, Cambridge, 2009

Subversive Copy Editor

Literature and The Writing Process

Patterns of Exposition 8

Writing in the Disciplines, Third Edition, Harcourt Brace College, 1995

Euripedes IV, The Complete Greek Tragedies, Edited by David Greene and Richmond Lattiore, the University of Chicago Press, 1958

The Best Travel Writing 2000

Writing your poem, a practical approach to verse writing. Lawrence John Zillman

A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations : Chicago Style for students and researchers by Kate L. Turabian, Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams

Writing under pressure : the quick writing process by Sanford. Kaye

The Past before us : contemporary historical writing in the United States by Michael G. Kammen, American Historical Association.

University writing : selves and texts in academic societies by Montserrat. Castelló, Christiane. Donahue

The Chicago guide to writing about numbers by Jane E. Miller

Student Research and Report Writing : From Topic Selection to the Complete Paper. by Gabe T. Wang, Keumjae. Park

Teaching with writing by Toby Fulwiler

The Art of Public Speaking, by Stephen E. Lucas

Permutations Edited by Joan Digby and Bob Brier

Paper Airplane, by Bard

Exploring Literature, Writing and Thinking about fiction, poetry, Drama and the essay, By Frank Madden

The Norton Introduction to Literature, Fiction, Bain Beaty Hunter

Studies in Fiction, Blaze O. Bonanza, Emil Roy, Sandra Roy

Efictions, Short Story and Novel Reader, Joseph F. Trimmer, C. Wade Jennings, Annette Patterson

The Yale Book of Quotations By Fred R. Shapiro and Joseph Epstein

Trivium The Classical Liberal Arts of Grammar, Logic & Rhetoric By, John Michell

Rhetoric:  The Art of Persuasion by Andrew Aberdeen

My First Words By, Teora

Memoir:  Growing up Italian American:  The Memoirs of Ferdinand Visco and the Stories of Two Italian Families By Ferdinand Visco M.D.

Technical Writing

Technical Communication, 11th edition 2014
Mike Markel
ISBN: 978-0312-485979
Bedford/St. Martin’s

Technical and Professional Writing, Solving Problems at Work, By Kennedy & Montgomery

Business Writing, By Wilma Davidson

The Essentials of Technical Communication, Third Edition, Elizabeth Tebbeaux, Oxford University Press, 2014

Excellence in Business Communication, Twelth Edition 2017
John V. Thill and Courtland L. Bovee
ISBN: 9780134388144
Loose Leaf Edition: ISBN: 9780134388175

Successful Writing at Work, 4th Concise Edition 2014
Philip Kolin
ISBN: 978-1280-5052564

Technical Communication Today, 5th Edition 2014
Richard Johnson-Sheehan
ISBN 978-0321-907981

The Essentials of Technical Communication 3rd Edition 2014
Elizabeth Tebeaux and Sam Dragga
ISBN: 978-0195-5384222
Oxford University Press

Writing in the Health Professions 2005
Barbara A. Heifferon
ISBN: 978-0321-105271


What Editors Do:  The Art, Craft and Business of Book Editing by Peter Ginna

Proofing Handbook McGraw Hill


Cassell’s Latin Dictionary Latin-English

The Latin language. by Leonard R. Palmer

Roman antiquities: or, An account of the manners and customs of the Romans; designed to illustrate the Latin classics, by explaining words and phrases, from the rites and customs to which they refer.

by Alexander Adam, James Boyd

A history of Latin literature. by Moses Hadas

Oxford Latin dictionary  by P. G. W. Glare

A handbook of Latin literature from the earliest times to the death of St. Augustine, by H. J. Rose

Medieval Latin palaeography : a bibliographical introduction

by Leonard E. Boyle, University of Toronto.

The poems, English, Latin and Greek, of Richard Crashaw

by Richard Crashaw, L. C. Martin

Analytical comparison of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Teutonic languages, shewing the original identity of their grammatical structure

by Franz Bopp, Joseph-Daniel Guigniaut


Vocabulary Workshop in Chinese-English Jeong Kee Kim

Soules Dictionary of English Synonyms

Roget’s International Thesaurus  By Robert Chapman

Writing Tools

How Writing Works, Jordynn Jack, Oxford University Press, 2014

So What, the Writers Argument, Kurt Schick and Laura Schubert, Oxford University Press, 2013

Who Says, Deborah H. Holdstein, Danielle Aquiline, Oxford University Press, 2013

The Real World Reader, A Rhetorical Reader for Writers, James S. Miller, Oxford University Press, January 2015

Poverty Privilege, A Reader for Writers, Connie Snyder Mick, Oxford University Press, 2014

Technology, A Reader for Writers, Johannah Rodgers, Oxford University Press, 2014

Language, A Reader for Writers, Gita Dasbender, Oxford University Press, 2013

Identity, A Reader for Writers, John Scenters-Zapico, Oxford University Press, 2013

Sustainability, A Reader for Writers, Carl Herndl, Oxford University Press, 2013

Culture, A Reader for Writers, John Mauk, Oxford University Press, 2013

A Guide for Writing Tutors, Practice and Research, Lauren Fitzgerald, Oxford University Press, Feb 2015

Research Methods

Social Research Methods By Bryman on Oxford Press

The Research Imagination:  An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Methods By Gray, Williamson, Karp, Dalphin, Cambridge Press

The Scientific Method Historical and Philosophical Introduction By Barry Gower

The Research Paper Handbook James Lester

Research methods by Jack R. Nation

Statistical methods in research and production. by Owen L. Davies, Peter Lewis. Goldsmith

Qualitative research methods for the social sciences by Bruce L. Berg

Research methods in physical activity  by Jerry R. Thomas, Jack K. Nelson

MLA handbook for writers of research papers. by Joseph Gibaldi, Modern Language Association of America.

Research papers by William. Coyle

The craft of research by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams

A guide to writing sociology papers  by Judith. Richlin-Klonsky, Ellen Strenski, Roseann. Giarrusso, University of California, Los Angeles. Sociolo

Writing the laboratory notebook by Howard M. Kanare


Words into Type, by Marjorie E. Skillin & Robert M. Gay, Prentice- Hall Inc., 1974

Josef Muller-Brockman Swiss designer

Jan Tschichold  German Typography

Stereo graphics

False Flat


Bedfordstmartins.com/tech com   (how to make graphs tutorials)



National Geographic Atlas of the World, 8th Edition, National Geographic Society, Washington D.C.

Atlas of The World   Oxford University Press

Medical Directories & Handbooks

The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library  www.merck.com/mmpe/index.html

U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Heatlh  www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/

www.cdc.gov  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Medical Dictionary

Directories & Handbooks

Official Congressional Directory, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.


Political Handbook of the World:  CQ Press, Washington, D.C.

For company names consult the New York Stock Exchange http://www.nyse.com or NASDAQ at http://www.nasdaq.com

http://biz.ap.org  stock abbreviations alphabetical list of company names


Capital IQ a division of Standard & Poor’s

Religion Questions Handbook of Denominations in the United States

The Non Profit Organization Handbook, Tracy D. Connors (Look for all Tracy D. Connors Books)


Technology books and binder of shortcuts

Extra Suggestions

The Calligraphy Source Book

Write now : the complete program for better handwriting by Barbara. Getty, Inga. Dubay

Purdue Owl website including “how to write an academic cover letter”

Telephone books

Binder of language studies

Webster’s Complete Desktop Reference Book

Special Thanks to: Norwich University/ Kreitzberg Library, University of Michigan Library/ Hatcher Library, Associated Press Style Manual Bibliography, Eastern Michigan University/ Pray-Harrold Writing Dept., Purdue University, Oxford University Press Catalog, Ann Arbor District Library, Ypsilanti District Library, Amazon Books, Compendiums, digests and random finds.

Outcome of Grade Grievance Meetings at Eastern Michigan University from Summer 2015 to Present

Outcome of Grade Grievance Meetings at Eastern Michigan University from summer 2015 to Present

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Ypsilanti, Michigan, the summer semester at Eastern Michigan University in 2015 was challenging for student A.

Inclusive of revisions she had signed onto 3 intensive writing classes in feminist theory, technical writing and feature writing.  When all semester work was said and done student A wrote ~20 papers in a short semester.  It must be difficult for Professor’s to gauge “course load” in any given semester.

After the completion of the summer term and after 2 grade grievance meetings for two classes, the offer from the Ombudsman’s Office came which was to apply to drop all three classes and clear the record.

Several months later in 2016, while student A sat out a few semesters, all three classes where wiped clean from her transcripts and record.  What became apparent when student A received an E at %48 from a southern male philosophy teacher of Feminist Theory-student A had no choice but to fight with the prospect of her student career ruined.  It became peculiar to student A why the Professor did not share her concerns and failed to properly listen and investigate.  Grade Grievances are likely disliked by Professor’s whose tenured positions may become compromised.

Three completed classes were denied grade changes in favor of a complete withdraw.  Affirmative Action at EMU mishandled the case that was brought from the Ombudsman’s Office describing it as outside their scope.  Affirmative Action detailed their area as having to do with overt racist or misogynistic or disability offensive “verbal” language, but not with racist language in college text books.  Affirmative Action did not desire to “read” the text book in question.  In spite of hard evidence The Office of Affirmative Action declined to support student A.

Later student A recognized the potency of going direct to the publisher or Follet who publish and sell the book as a college text book.

Faculty and staff were asked not to broadcast personal information about student A in connection with staff and faculty meetings in regards to the grade grievance proceedings.  Often student A feels faculty and staff speak candidly about students personal lives without care for their respect, privacy, merit or future.

Many students when faced with problems at the university may end up taking similar steps if left with no other option but to fight without wanting to make an enemy of the school.

Student A did not pursue legal options and in the end was pleased that her efforts were responded to and a middle ground solution was found.  She pleaded with one high up staff member not to get on the microphone and broadcast.  Student A says, “I am not litigious because I want my degree, love the school and want to be instrumental its continued growth.”

Meanwhile student A reworks her graduation plan.  She meets up with voice teachers and piano teachers in the music department.  She participates in a non-profit leadership group and received an honorary membership to The National Society of Leadership and Success from EMU.

When as in writings about professionalism and problem solving at work one often avoids “conflict” not to further compromise themselves.  Student A said her nerves were shot at meetings and her school work turned into evidence.  At first it seemed that everyone was against student A when Dean’s, Professor’s and student’s all sided against student A.

Eventually all grades did get overturned and were discharged with tuition refunded.  Sometimes you are left with no choice but to fight to continue your education, at all.

In conclusion, the grade grievance hearings were a success for Eastern Michigan University in that in spite of their tedious nature they found a neutral remedy and student A can peacefully attend school and complete her degree.  It is difficult to create a forum where student’s issues are actually heard and cared for.

Well trained professionals may need to govern key areas of change in the finance department and with the registrar, as well as mediate student, faculty and staff issues, tacit issues, work issues, behavior issues, and curriculum issues, teaching methods and work load issues.  Psychological concerns get on the table often especially with the anxiety that the graded tasks can create.   College text books may also need course evaluation following each class.

Students may feel tremendous pressure and loneliness in desperate appeals.  It would be great it EMU created its own log and historical archive for how all grievances were handled and handle them in an exemplary fashion. Students need to work hard to strengthen the Ombudsman’s Office with the know- how and compassion, to be an ear for students issues, that follows up. Every case presents history and may become relevant as precedents for future cases.  Keep track of daily life at EMU and report problems to the Ombudsman to create a record and trail for improvement.  Similar things may be happening to another student and as in Kahlil Gibran’s example, “to remove the stumbling stone,” for future generations to enjoy a well- crafted and governed education.

Intelligent Design vs. Natural Selection and Evolution Theories

Intelligent Design versus Natural Selection and Evolution Theories

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Arguments around “intelligent design” describe it as that which is directed, intuitive,  rationalist  and contrary to natural selection which is a subheading under the academic discipline of biology, and under evolutionary biology, is empiricist and engaging with the scientific method.  The debate over evolution also has to do with what methods will be chosen to “write about life” and contrary to what has been said there is plenty of evidence to support evolutionary theory.

Many agree with Darwin on “how new things originate.” The study of evolution is considered a “central unifying concept in biology.” Darwin’s “Theory of Evolution and Natural Selection” were historic contributions to evolutionary theory.  Science was later able to use evolution for gene therapies.

Biology was described to divide into four groups that include 1) biological organization from molecular to cell organization to population, 2) Taxonomic group which includes fields in zoology, all animals, ornithology (birds), herpetology (reptiles and amphibians), 3) Theoretical biology and 4) experimental evolution .

Evolutionary biology emerged as an academic discipline in the 1930’s.  Biology has departments such as molecular and cell biology, ecology, evolutionary biology which were said to have replaced botany and zoology.  There are examples given of statistician, Ronald Fisher 1890-1962, who it is believed to have helped form modern evolutionary synthesis of Mendelian genetics and natural selection.

JBS Haldone 1892-1964 helped create the field of population genetics. Using the Scientific Method one learns how to observe, how to experiment or how to calculateMethod is from the Greek “methodos” and as to do with the “pursuit of knowledge” or a way of inquiry or a way of pursuit.  “Method has to do with a way of doing in accordance with a plan.”

Evidence of science journals support evolution’s claim as an “academic field” are:  “Genome Biology & Evolution,” “Molecular Ecology,” “Proceedings of the Royal Society of London,” “The American Naturalist,” “Theoretical Population Biology,” “Trends in Ecology & Evolution,” “Annual Review of Ecology,” “Evolution and Systematics,””Genetics and PLos Genetics.”

Further expanding on evolution as a subtitle under biology which has the following sub categories:  artificial selection, comparative anatomy, computational phylogenetics, evolutionary computation, evolutionary dynamics, evolutionary neuroscience, evolutionary physiology, evolutionary psychology, genetics, the origin of species, phylogenetic comparative methods, quantitative genetics, selective breeding.

An argument for empiricism and evolution is justified as using the “scientific method” within evolution subtitles such as “quantitative genetics,” or while operating under the academic discipline of biology.  The determination of evolution has to do with investigation and developmental processes which compares them and different organisms.  “Life History Theory,” suggests that evolutionary approach is key to “current research in organismal biology and ecology.”

“Annotation of genes and their function relies heavily on comparative evolutionary approaches.”

Evidence of field is included in science Journals such as:  “Journal of Evolutionary Biology,” “BMC Evolutionary Biology,” Sub categories: “Systematic Biology,” “Molecular Biology,” “Molecular Biology & Evolution.”

Evolutionary forces include:  1) natural selection, 2) sexual selection,3) genetic drift, 4) genetic draft, 5) developmental constraints, 6) bias, 7) bio geography.

There are many evolutionary theories including the “theory of molecular evolution.”  “Biologists try to infer which genes have been under strong selection by detecting selective sweeps.”

One possible hypothesis was that “evolutionary research try to explain phenomena that were poorly accounted for in modern evolutionary synthesis.”  The idea was for biologists to ask “what happened and when,” have methods and draw conclusions.

Another key term coined was for “genetic architecture” that is concerned with 1) adaptation and 2) speciation.

“What happened and when” uses “palaeobiology, systematics and phylogenetics.” “Evolution was largely concerned with genetics and what do genes do and changes that happen to genes, how many genes and at what point is mutation or gene duplication or genome duplication?”

Hereditability was another concept that used the genome and performed wide association studies. Evolution studies uses DNA data sequencing and applies it to evolution theory. 

ID or Intelligent Design was a way of interpreting data. 

Scientific arguments were often litigated and not based on assumptuous claims, but “conclusions arrival and vast evidence.”

“Designed for life” or “just right for life” or “how biology confirms our intuition that life is designed,” by Douglas Fox.  Or rather “how new things originate or origins theory or with intelligent causation.”

“The Scientific Method is the process by which scientists collectively and over time endeavor to construct a non arbitrary representation of the world.” The Scientific Method uses a non-biased or non-prejudiced methods to portray versions of the world.

It was stated that “evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology that studies the evolutionary processes that produced the diversity of life on earth…these processes include natural selection, common descent and speciation.”

Method itself in this case is also compelling when looking at the  examples of the teaching of languages  (Immersion Method), Pedagogy in general, Suzuki violin, architecture which may utilize various strategies including renderings and plans.  There are methods for presenting research and methods for writing papers.  Consult books like “Technical and Professional Writing,” or “Technical Communication” by Mark Markel which frames many methods for a variety of specific professional writings.




An Approach to Art Making #1

An Approach to art making can include diverse formulae. One such formula may root an artwork in “research.” A body of research may form the foundation of an artwork.  “Rich” artwork may result from a body of research.  Research may need to employ writing, to develop the artwork or artworks.  Without writing, it is difficult to have the dialogue one needs to be engaged with an art work-before and after the artwork. Research may also involve data collection or formal methods employed by scientists in, for example, social methods or qualitative methods or quantitative research methods. An artist may also utilize methods in investigative journalism.

A second road may be a formula such as “Quepine (QPN),” Question, Proverb and News. Quepine can be a divine formula for beauty or knowledge or beauty from knowledge. Quepine is a formula that may result in sacred artworks and make an artist wise. Quepine can root a subject matter in history by attaching it to the news. News is history. Giving a subject history gives it depth and a road to travel on in time.  News has been a theme in art for a long time.  News is used in wax print textiles, art, and music of certain cultures, especially African cultures, who may name a baby or feature a notable from the news.  In some of the African music, the news may be right in the music. A small rural village may become reliant on musicians to convey the news to the people via songs.  Also, some art schools taught “news” as a way of plucking from current events, subjects relevant to the human condition as was done by a student colleague from the Parisian E’cole de Beaux Arts.  Human condition is not exclusive to the news, but it is a worthy method.  Human Condition was taught, perhaps, as a notch from existentialism and existentialism is perhaps “the root of art.”

Why this writer believes that existentialism is “the root of art”  is the relationship to “art” of the word in “Crackiola,”  “are-tea,” or  “our essence” or the “I AM” which was used by many supercomputers and by the Chinese Manufacturers.  The English language breaks down into codes and root systems.  Secondly, many crucial areas in art are easily organized around existentialism or the “I AM,” such as history, the human condition, social, observational, humanitarian and so on.  Drawing, painting, sculpting and photography etc. may all be existential.


“Planning” may also be something that architects utilize to build houses and could be a word that artists need. This writer was explained how an architect may have a very detailed and specific set of plans to build an exact design precisely and swiftly with all the electrical outlets etc. An artist may make “plans.” An artwork based on plans may have an interesting result that is often mechanical or electrical or structural. Computer Aided Drafting may be utilized.

Recently, this writer was asked “what are your goals?” and “how will you design your studio?” right after. It was asked in a sewing class and functioned like an epiphany, the student began to develop this wild list of “sewing goals.”

If one picked up a good newspaper or a selection of newspapers and thought about say for example “world peace” or integrated social elements into ones goals their studio may take a different turn. What if one had an “umbrella” under which they were working from? An artist’s umbrella.


– Studio Design


“Technique” is the fourth road. The technique provides an endless possibility. Most art schools provide students with strong technical backgrounds, which always serve an artist.  An artist may choose to hinge their artwork on a technique and be infinite within it.  The technique can be powerful when coupled with for example, “history.” Students of art may also embark on an existential path that explores diverse techniques.

“Studies” are another road that was used in Nikolai Gogol’s book “Diary of a Madman.” Studies can provide a context for future works or larger works or thumbnails or for manifestation.  With studies, one may take it apart in many ways, to ascertain many diverse things. Studies may lead to problem solving or product design or anything in the realm of possibility. Studies may serve government and help people to bridge gaps and jump over fences. In Gogol’s book, “Diary of a Madman,” his main character was engaged in studies and posted an ad in the newspaper to solicit clients for his portraiture.



-Planning (as in Architecture)



In the presence of writing an artwork can literally fall- “when it falls.” When one is writing a book, for example, and illustrating pages, drawings are easily pulled from the text.

However, most artworks are “site-specific.” An artist can search for a locale, build a locale or create a site-specific work of art.  Recently an artist went to plan an exhibition and recognized this phenomenon- that in fact, artwork is almost always “site-specific.” Or an artwork can be adapted to space and remade.

Another intersection I find very meaningful is “custom design,” for the artist and for the designer.  Custom design, commissions and site specific art works, bare a relationship. There is a necessity in art to think about space.

Custom Design may be very relevant to artists, who in turn may pursue credentials from multidisciplinary design programs such as “MDP” in the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan.  Custom design may involve manufacturing, technology or systems design mixed with artworks. For example “Church Pop,” may be installed in a house or perhaps a fiber art wall installation or a sound system. An artist may need to be an engineer. An artist’s ability to manifest their ideas has often been incongruent. But the creativity of an artist may place on paper, a vision for an entire city or even in exhibition unveil viable ideas to solve the world’s problems.

-When it falls

-Site Specific

-Custom Design

 In the Middle East, it has been said, to employ “finery techniques,” that “fine art should be fine.”  In the Middle East it is commonplace for a lot of people to reside in palaces, which would further create a desire for finery, or art that is compatible with the local architecture.

At the Central Academy of Fine Art in China, they are painting birds and flowers-not exclusively. It was said to me by a Chinese Artist that “birds are always beautiful.” If you choose a beautiful subject, the result is almost always beautiful.


Art Relevant Juncture has also to do with relevance itself. It was said to this artist that she has a “relevant” artwork. That “the more relevant, perhaps the better the art,” was said by someone from the University of Michigan.

Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

(Excerpt from “Art Relevant Juncture,” by Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu based on her research about art.