Art Writing: Intellectualization in Art, An Existential Study

Intellectualization in Art, an Existential Study

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

 

The Wax Maquette

Place your hands inside the catalyst and imagine architectural space

If you close your eyes will you be stimulated to see something in the past, present or future

If you look inside, will you connect your design to the catalytic model

 

The Ouija board

Use the board to connect spiritually

Calling all spirits!

Either I am contacting the spirits or they are a con artist, let’s find out!

How will I know?

How the game connects you to a spiritual thought successfully

 

The two objects

Connecting two thoughts that make something

Together these two thoughts make something

Object writer

 

The placement of poetry

 

The bringing into thought

 

What do we know?

 

Thought Traveler

 

Eye control

 

The crest, the builder, the exaltation

 

Past, present, future

Bringing forward or sending behind or backwards

The new branding

To pull an image from the past to conjure the era in the present

To have the same thoughts, then to have a second thought

 

The look at thought world

The conjurer, the human designer, the condition, the desire, the provocation

The drop off, the ideals

 

The availability

Creating art in writing

Creating art in thought

The abstract manifestation

 

Art that you utilize, art that you keep thinking about

 

No money, no studio, still a maker

Available, resourceful, prosperous

Avenues of omissions

Reductionism

Condensed

The without becomes

The stripped down art may also become intellectualization

 

Resonance, the resonating after thought

Musical qualities, Bing! Bing! Bing! ______

 

What ultimately we learn from art

 

The reading

 

The mind pop

 

Your thought treasure, your thought treasure trove

 

The painting

Remembering, connecting points, transporting

Maybe you always find a connecting point

Maybe it triggers and you remember something from which you connected

 

Dignified has a look, compassion can also have a look

The values exhibition

 

 

Rule #1=You can control a little bit the thought in art to make the art.

Rule #2=You can control a little bit the eye in art, to guide the viewer and make the art.

 

 

Up to Snuff #15: Definition of a Professional

A Definition of a Professional 

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

A professional could be the equivalent of that directional decision or epiphany one has when they desire “expertise” in a subject or field.  The other day in a technology role one woman thought perhaps she will become an “apps expert” or an apprentice in skilled trades or research the history of Santeria.  Many blocks of knowledge present opportunity to win expertise and become a “professional.”

A professional could be someone like the example in this week’s readings about Edward Rolf Tufte, who may have become so “professional” that he offers a one day course, writes books and works as a Yale professor and sculptor.[1]  Tufte’s example illustrates mastership in several fields such as “data” or “elegant design” which is exhibited by quality products, services, and dissemination-when the quality of ones tasks, results and ability achieves a degree of professionalism.  An indicator of a “professional” may be also the alignment with teaching something they know, or having achieved professorship or become a trainer.

Professionalism elicits respect.  Professionalism may be characteristic of a “singular effort,” “practiced discipline and skill”[2].  Many professionals find that their positions require them to “write in response to a problem,”[3] ask questions, write on diverse subjects and in diverse professional styles.  Professionals are also said to require professional meetings and often write for and read professional journals.

Professionals when they start to break down problems that become prominent in their roles need skills for problem solving.  Problems can be broken down into two elements called “technical” or “fundamental workings of the professional discipline” or two “rhetorical” “the “communication of workings about what has been done and will be done about them to the people interested.”[4]

A professional may also likely avoid disputes, arguing, fighting or undesirable comments about performance.  Traditional professionals study in many schools of knowledge and achieve degrees from associate to Ph.D.  [5]

When looking in Latin for roots to professional or professor or “proficio,” “things like public declaration  of one’s name, property or occupation, authority, expert, authoritative, of persons who make progress, advance, gain ground-maybe even literally, to be of use, to assist, to help, to declare oneself anything.”[6]

A professional may also be someone who keeps society “running well, effectively, efficiently, humanely.” [7] Professional has also been described as a “social notion.” [8] Professional is also described as “high standards of performance, accuracy, thoroughness, honesty and integrity.”[9]

A professional may utilize sophisticated tools, software or hardware, or specific trade resources and in the example of “Latin prose composition as suggested by Cassell’s Latin Dictionary, regarded as an integral part of classical scholarship the student should refer back to the Latin-English for further illumination.”[10]

[1]Smith, Fran, Stanford Magazine, “Intelligent Designs: When Information needs to be communicated Edward Tufte Demands both Truth and Beauty” Page 1

https://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=32152#.WA8ACFzYS5c.email

[2] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[3] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[4] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[5]Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work,  2002, pages 3-5.

[6] Simpson, D.P., Cassell’s Latin Dictionary, 1968, page 477.

[7] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[8] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[9] Kennedy, George, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, 2002, pages 3-5.

[10]Simpson, D.P., Cassell’s Latin Dictionary, Latin-English, Wiley Publishing, 1968, Preface, p. vii

Up to Snuff #3: “A Fundamental Writers Desk Top Reference Book List” Revised 10-15-2017

Up to Snuff #3: Revised (10-15-17)  “A Fundamental Desk Top Reference Book List for Writers”

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Dictionaries

Newton’s Telecom Dictionary, By Harry Newton, Flatiron Books, 2007

Webster’s New World Collegiate Dictionary, Fourth Edition, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ

The American Heritage Dictionary of The English Language, fourth edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston & New York

Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford

The Grosset Webster Dictionary (Childrens)

Harrap’s Shorter French & English Dictionary

501 Spanish Verbs

Dictionaries of the World

Diccionario Sigmer (Spanish Dictionary of synonyms)

Style Manuals/Grammar

MLA Style, APA Style, Chicago Style

Understanding Style, Practical Ways to Improve Your Writing, Joe Glassar, Oxford University Press, Jan 2015

The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation

A Guide to Composition Pedagogies, by Gary Tate, Amy Rupiper Taggart, Oxford University Press, 2013

Doing Grammar, by Max Morenberg, Oxford University Press, 2013,

The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press, 2003

The Associated Press Style Book

Variety of Style books from newspapers

The Elements of Style, By William Strunk, Jr &  E.B. White, The Macmillan Company

Onomatopoeia

Studies in the History of the English Language VI : Evidence and Method in Histories of English. by Michael. Adams, Laurel J. Brinton, R. D. Fulk

Format:eBook  Publication year:  2015

Studies in language origins. Volume 1 by Jan. Wind

Format: eBook, Publication year: 1989

AP Style Book Online

A Writer’s Reference 6th Edition By Diana Hacker

Hacker, Diana, Research and Documentation in the Electronic Age

Hacker, Diana, Pocket Style Manual

Booth, Wayne, Gregory Colomb, and Joseph Williams, The Craft of Research

Lunsford, Andrea and Robert Connors, Easy Writer, A Pocket Guide

Murray, Donald M., The Craft of Revision

Williams, Joseph, Style:  Ten Lessons in Clarity and Grace

Zinsser, William, On Writing Well

Viking Book of Aphorisms:  A Personal Selection  W.H. Arden

Usage

Harper Dictionary of Contemporary Usage, by William and Morris, Harper & Row, 1975

Dictionary of Problem Words & Expressions, Mcgraw Hill Book Company, 1975

A Careful Writer: A Modern Guide to English Usage, By Theodore M. Bernstein, Free Press 1965

More Language That Needs Watching, By Theodore M. Bernstein, Channel Press 1962

Watch Your Language, By Theodore Bernstein, Atheneum, 1958

The Word, by Rene Cappon, The Associated Press, 1982

Modern American Usage by Wilson Follet, Hill & Wang, 1966

A Dictionary of Modern English Usage, Oxford University Press 1965

Fowler’s Modern English Usage, By H.W. Fowler & R.W. Burchfield Oxford University Press, 2004

Semantics

Semantics in Generative Grammar (Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics) by Irene Heim

Language in Thought and Action Fifth Edition By, Hayakawa and Alan R. Hayakawa

Semantics Introducing Linguistics By John Saeed

Semantics (Palgrove Modern Linguistics) by Kate Kearns

Meaning & Language, An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics (Oxford Textbooks in Linguistics) By Alan Cruse

Semantics:  A Course book By James R. Hartford and Michael B. Smith

Meaning:  A Slim guide to Semantics Oxford Linguistics By Paul Elbourne

Semantic Web for the Working Ontologist, Second Edition:  Effective Modeling in RDFS and OWL by Dean Allemang and James Hendler

Semantic Perception:  How the Illusion of a Common Language Arises and Persists by Jody Azzouni

Drive Yourself Sane:  Using Uncommon Sense of General Semantics, Third Edition, by Susan Presby Kodish and Bruce I. Kodish

Syntax

Syntax:  A Generative Introduction By Andrew Carnie

Sin & Syntax:  How to Craft Wicked Good Prose By Constance Hale

The Syntax Handbook Everything You Learned About Syntax But Forgot By, Laura M. Justice

The Art of Syntax:  Rhythm of thought, Rhythm of Song By ellen Bryant Voight

Artful Sentences, Syntax as Style  By Virginia Tufte

The Syntax Workbook:  A Companion to Carnies Syntax By Andrew Carnie

Understanding Syntax by Maggie Tallerman

Syntax:  a Minimalist Introduction By Andrew Radford

Phonology

Introductory Phonology By, Bruce Hayes

Introducing Phonology Cambridge Introductions to Language and Linguistics by, David Odden

Phonology a Coursebook by, Robert Kennedy

The Sounds of Language:  An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology by, Elizabeth C. Zsiga

Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology From Concepts to Transcription By Jacqueline Bauman-Waengler

Articulation & Phonology in Speech Sound Disorders:  A Clinical Focus 5th Edition By, Jacqueline Bauman-Waengler

NAVLIPI Volume 1, A New Universal, Script (Alphabet) Accommodating the Phonemic Idiosyncrasies of all Words By, Prasanna Chandra Sekhar & Nicholas Ostler

An Introduction to Phonetics & Phonology by John Clark + Colin Yallop

English Phonetics and Phonology Paperwork with Audio CD’s (2):  A Practical Course By, Peter Roach

Phonology (Palgrove Modern Linguistics) By, Phillip Carr & Jean-Pierre Montreuil

Introduction to Russian Phonology & Word Structure By, William Hamilton

Sanskrit Manual:  A Quick Reference Guide to Phonology and Grammar of Classical Sanskrit

Applied English Phonology by, Mehmet Yavas

The Phonology & Morphology of Arabic The Phonology of the Worlds Languages By, Janet C. E. Watson

Phonetically based Phonology By Bruce Hayes and Robert Kirchner

Understanding Phonology Understanding Language By, Carlos Gussenboven & Haille Jacobs

Generative Phonology Description and Theory By, Michael Kenstowicz & Charles Kissebert

Phonology:  An Introduction to Basic Concepts, Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics By Roger Lass

Introducing Phonetics & Phonology By Mike Davenport & S.J. Hannahs

Phonology & Generative Grammar, (Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics No. 7) by, Michael Kenstowicz

Evolutionary Phonology:  The Emergence of Sound Patterns By, Juliette Blevins

Que Bien Suena:  Mastering Spanish Phonetics and Phonology (World Languages) By, Jeffrey D. Stokes

Proverbs

The Dictionary of Modern Proverbs By, Charles Clay Doyle

Encyclopedia of World Proverbs, Prentice Hall Encyclopedia of World Proverbs by, Wolfgang Mieder

Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs, Oxford Quick Reference By Jennifer Speake

Journalism

The Elements of Journalism

Journalism Basics

Feature Writing, By Lee Friedlander

The Investigative Reporter’s Handbook:  A Guide to Documents, Databases and Techniques

News Writing and Reporting and Reporting for Today’s Media  B.D. Itule

The Longman Guide to Style and Writing on the Internet  M.C. Sammons

Film writing and selected journalism by James Agee

From fact to fiction : journalism & imaginative writing in America  by Shelley Fisher. Fishkin

American Earth : environmental writing since Thoreau  by Bill. McKibben, Al Gore

The New Journalism by Tom Wolfe, E. W. Johnson

The rhetoric of empire : colonial discourse in journalism, travel writing, and imperial administration  by David Spurr

Broadcast journalism : an introduction to news writing  by Mark W. Hall

News writing  by George A. Hough

Writing your journal article in 12 weeks : a guide to academic publishing success  by Wendy Laura. Belcher

News reporting and writing by Melvin. Mencher

Longman Dictionary of Mass Media Communication, Tracy D. Connors

 Letters & Correspondence

Letters  by Theodore Roosevelt, Elting Elmore. Morison, John Morton Blum, John J. Buckley

Correspondence by Herman Melville, Lynn. Horth

Holmes-Pollock letters; the correspondence of Mr. Justice Holmes and Sir Frederick Pollock, 1874-1932.

by Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.,, Frederick Pollock, Mark De Wolfe Howe

Letters. by Edward FitzGerald, J. M. Cohen

Correspondence.  by Jonathan Swift, Harold Herbert Williams Sir,

The habit of being : letters by Flannery. O’Connor, Sally. Fitzgerald

The letters of T.S. Eliot  by T. S. Eliot, Valerie. Eliot

Hour of gold, hour of lead; diaries and letters of Anne Morrow Lindbergh, 1929-1932.

by Anne Morrow Lindbergh, Mazal Holocaust Collection.

A treasury of the world’s great letters from ancient days to our own time : containing the characteristic and crucial communications, and intimate exchanges and cycles of correspondence, of many of the outstanding figures of world history, and some notable contemporaries

by M. Lincoln Schuster, Rouben Mamoulian Collection (Library of Congress)

Essays

Essays and reviews  by Edgar Allan Poe, Gary Richard Thompson

Millennial stages : essays and reviews, 2001-2005  by Robert Sanford Brustein

Toynbee and history; critical essays and reviews, by Ashley Montague

The Concept of a Philosophical Jurisprudence : Essays and Reviews 1926-51. by Michael. Oakeshott, Luke. O’Sullivan

The theory and practice of American literary naturalism : selected essays and reviews by Donald. Pizer

Hewing to experience : essays and reviews on recent American poetry and poetics, nature and culture

by Sherman. Paul

The vocabulary of a modern European state : Essays and Reviews 1953-1988. by Michael. Oakeshott

The eye of the story : selected essays and reviews by Eudora Welty

The responsibilities of the critic; essays and reviews.  by F. O. Matthiessen

Essays and reviews : the 1860 text and its reading by Victor Shea, William Whitla

Writing nature : Henry Thoreau’s Journal  by Sharon. Cameron

The Essay, By Crowell and Kolba

Disciplines

Academic Writing with Readings, Teresa Thonney, Oxford University Press

The Copy Editors Handbook

Serious Daring, Creative Writing in Four Genres, Lisa Roney, Oxford University Press, 2014

Modern American Poetry, Anthology of Modern American Poetry, Oxford University Press, 2014

Anthology of Contemporary American Poetry, Cary Nelson, Oxford University Press, 2014

How to Interpret Literature, Critical Theory for Literary and Cultural Studies, Robert Dale Parker, Oxford University Press, 2014

Advertising, A very Short Introduction, Winston Fletcher, Oxford University Press, 2010

Bestsellers, A Very short Introduction, John Sutherland, Oxford University Press, 2007

Food, A Reader for Writers, Deborah Holdstein, Columbia college Chicago, 2014

Humor, A Reader for Writers, Kathleen Volk Miller, Drexel University, Marion Wrenn, MY Abu Dhabi

Contemporary Fiction, A very Short Introduction, Robert Eaglestone, Oxford Unversity Press, 2013

Design, John Heskett, Hong Kong Polytechnic, 2005

English Literature, Jonathan Bate, University of Warwick, 2010

Ethics, Simon Blackburn, University of Cambridge, 2009

Globalization, Manfred Steger, University of Hawaii, 2013

Tragedy, Adrian Poole, University of Cambridge and Trinity College, 2005

Writing and Script, Andrew Robinson, Wolfson College, Cambridge, 2009

Subversive Copy Editor

Literature and The Writing Process

Patterns of Exposition 8

Writing in the Disciplines, Third Edition, Harcourt Brace College, 1995

Euripedes IV, The Complete Greek Tragedies, Edited by David Greene and Richmond Lattiore, the University of Chicago Press, 1958

The Best Travel Writing 2000

Writing your poem, a practical approach to verse writing. Lawrence John Zillman

A manual for writers of research papers, theses, and dissertations : Chicago Style for students and researchers by Kate L. Turabian, Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams

Writing under pressure : the quick writing process by Sanford. Kaye

The Past before us : contemporary historical writing in the United States by Michael G. Kammen, American Historical Association.

University writing : selves and texts in academic societies by Montserrat. Castelló, Christiane. Donahue

The Chicago guide to writing about numbers by Jane E. Miller

Student Research and Report Writing : From Topic Selection to the Complete Paper. by Gabe T. Wang, Keumjae. Park

Teaching with writing by Toby Fulwiler

The Art of Public Speaking, by Stephen E. Lucas

Permutations Edited by Joan Digby and Bob Brier

Paper Airplane, by Bard

Exploring Literature, Writing and Thinking about fiction, poetry, Drama and the essay, By Frank Madden

The Norton Introduction to Literature, Fiction, Bain Beaty Hunter

Studies in Fiction, Blaze O. Bonanza, Emil Roy, Sandra Roy

Efictions, Short Story and Novel Reader, Joseph F. Trimmer, C. Wade Jennings, Annette Patterson

The Yale Book of Quotations By Fred R. Shapiro and Joseph Epstein

Trivium The Classical Liberal Arts of Grammar, Logic & Rhetoric By, John Michell

Rhetoric:  The Art of Persuasion by Andrew Aberdeen

My First Words By, Teora

Memoir:  Growing up Italian American:  The Memoirs of Ferdinand Visco and the Stories of Two Italian Families By Ferdinand Visco M.D.

Technical Writing

Technical Communication, 11th edition 2014
Mike Markel
ISBN: 978-0312-485979
Bedford/St. Martin’s

Technical and Professional Writing, Solving Problems at Work, By Kennedy & Montgomery

Business Writing, By Wilma Davidson

The Essentials of Technical Communication, Third Edition, Elizabeth Tebbeaux, Oxford University Press, 2014

Excellence in Business Communication, Twelth Edition 2017
John V. Thill and Courtland L. Bovee
ISBN: 9780134388144
Pearson
Loose Leaf Edition: ISBN: 9780134388175

Successful Writing at Work, 4th Concise Edition 2014
Philip Kolin
ISBN: 978-1280-5052564
Cengage

Technical Communication Today, 5th Edition 2014
Richard Johnson-Sheehan
ISBN 978-0321-907981
Pearson

The Essentials of Technical Communication 3rd Edition 2014
Elizabeth Tebeaux and Sam Dragga
ISBN: 978-0195-5384222
Oxford University Press

Writing in the Health Professions 2005
Barbara A. Heifferon
ISBN: 978-0321-105271

Editing

What Editors Do:  The Art, Craft and Business of Book Editing by Peter Ginna

Proofing Handbook McGraw Hill

Latin

Cassell’s Latin Dictionary Latin-English

The Latin language. by Leonard R. Palmer

Roman antiquities: or, An account of the manners and customs of the Romans; designed to illustrate the Latin classics, by explaining words and phrases, from the rites and customs to which they refer.

by Alexander Adam, James Boyd

A history of Latin literature. by Moses Hadas

Oxford Latin dictionary  by P. G. W. Glare

A handbook of Latin literature from the earliest times to the death of St. Augustine, by H. J. Rose

Medieval Latin palaeography : a bibliographical introduction

by Leonard E. Boyle, University of Toronto.

The poems, English, Latin and Greek, of Richard Crashaw

by Richard Crashaw, L. C. Martin

Analytical comparison of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin and Teutonic languages, shewing the original identity of their grammatical structure

by Franz Bopp, Joseph-Daniel Guigniaut

Vocabulary

Vocabulary Workshop in Chinese-English Jeong Kee Kim

Soules Dictionary of English Synonyms

Writing Tools

How Writing Works, Jordynn Jack, Oxford University Press, 2014

So What, the Writers Argument, Kurt Schick and Laura Schubert, Oxford University Press, 2013

Who Says, Deborah H. Holdstein, Danielle Aquiline, Oxford University Press, 2013

The Real World Reader, A Rhetorical Reader for Writers, James S. Miller, Oxford University Press, January 2015

Poverty Privilege, A Reader for Writers, Connie Snyder Mick, Oxford University Press, 2014

Technology, A Reader for Writers, Johannah Rodgers, Oxford University Press, 2014

Language, A Reader for Writers, Gita Dasbender, Oxford University Press, 2013

Identity, A Reader for Writers, John Scenters-Zapico, Oxford University Press, 2013

Sustainability, A Reader for Writers, Carl Herndl, Oxford University Press, 2013

Culture, A Reader for Writers, John Mauk, Oxford University Press, 2013

A Guide for Writing Tutors, Practice and Research, Lauren Fitzgerald, Oxford University Press, Feb 2015

Research Methods

Social Research Methods By Bryman on Oxford Press

The Research Imagination:  An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Methods By Gray, Williamson, Karp, Dalphin, Cambridge Press

The Scientific Method Historical and Philosophical Introduction By Barry Gower

The Research Paper Handbook James Lester

Research methods by Jack R. Nation

Statistical methods in research and production. by Owen L. Davies, Peter Lewis. Goldsmith

Qualitative research methods for the social sciences by Bruce L. Berg

Research methods in physical activity  by Jerry R. Thomas, Jack K. Nelson

MLA handbook for writers of research papers. by Joseph Gibaldi, Modern Language Association of America.

Research papers by William. Coyle

The craft of research by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams

A guide to writing sociology papers  by Judith. Richlin-Klonsky, Ellen Strenski, Roseann. Giarrusso, University of California, Los Angeles. Sociolo

Writing the laboratory notebook by Howard M. Kanare

Typography

Words into Type, by Marjorie E. Skillin & Robert M. Gay, Prentice- Hall Inc., 1974

Josef Muller-Brockman Swiss designer

Jan Tschichold  German Typography

Stereo graphics

False Flat

Graphs

Bedfordstmartins.com/tech com   (how to make graphs tutorials)

Tufte

Atlas

National Geographic Atlas of the World, 8th Edition, National Geographic Society, Washington D.C.

Atlas of The World   Oxford University Press

Medical Directories & Handbooks

The Merck Manuals Online Medical Library  www.merck.com/mmpe/index.html

U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Heatlh  www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/

www.cdc.gov  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Medical Dictionary

Directories & Handbooks

Official Congressional Directory, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

http://www.gpoaccess.gov/cdirectory/search.html

Political Handbook of the World:  CQ Press, Washington, D.C.

For company names consult the New York Stock Exchange http://www.nyse.com or NASDAQ at http://wwwnasdaq.com

http://biz.ap.org  stock abbreviations alphabetical list of company names

Capital IQ a division of Standard & Poor’s

Religion Questions Handbook of Denominations in the United States

The Non Profit Organization Handbook, Tracy D. Connors (Look for all Tracy D. Connors Books)

www.npocrossroads.com

Technology books and binder of shortcuts

Extra Suggestions

The Calligraphy Source Book

Write now : the complete program for better handwriting by Barbara. Getty, Inga. Dubay

Purdue Owl website including “how to write an academic cover letter”

Telephone books

Binder of language studies

Webster’s Complete Desktop Reference Book

Special Thanks to: Norwich University/ Kreitzberg Library, University of Michigan Library/ Hatcher Library, Associated Press Style Manual Bibliography, Eastern Michigan University/ Pray-Harrold Writing Dept., Purdue University, Oxford University Press Catalog, Ann Arbor District Library, Ypsilanti District Library, Amazon Books, Compendiums, digests and random finds.

 

How are the Human Brain and Computers Alike?

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

The human brain and the computer may derive their information and knowledge in different ways –today-but both share cognitive function and are mostly “thinking beings.” According to the Turing Test, which made a distinction between the “imitation of thinking” and true thinking in computers.[1]  Many technological issues, even rights issues, in the future, may involve basic ideas around being “thinking beings.”

A computers knowledge may be derived from artificial intelligence where as a humans, atleast recently, derived  some of their knowledge from learning and somewhat from genetic make-up.

There are many cases where humans have desired a smarter computer, followed by a smarter self, more computer synthesized, which was evident in the millennial popularity of becoming a cyborg and chipping oneself here and there.

Computers may also begin to share more and more human capacity such as with cars developed with super computers and artificial intelligence that may serve as future drivers. One such autonomous vehicle  or computer was able to drive from Erie to Pittsburg without accidents, 200 miles.[2]  In the future things that computers may do that make them more human like may be drive, go to school and learn/study/teach/write/publish, or possess a more defined psychological computation, as was a prior goal of scientists researching artificial intelligence.[3]

Computers and beings have distinct storage, manipulation and sharing-however one scholar said “the likenesses equal the differences.”[4]  If one were to draw a line down the center of a piece of paper and compare humans and computers, in many slots there may not exist an exact counterpart, but a counterpart.  A human brain may have “ a compact tissue of nerve cells, fibers and signals, mobilized neurons with a fundamental relationship with anatomy and function”;[5]a computer may have a central processing unit, motherboard, memory, chip set, cache, ROM, RAM, virtual memory, monitor, keyboard and mouse.[6]  Other things humans are said to have according to  the book “Mind, Brain and Behavior” are “organs, areas, cognitive modules, functional maps, which jointly constitute a workspace.”[7]  Humans may differ from computers in terms of sensory perception, feelings and emotion, but not entirely, many computers also share those attributes.[8]

Many humans felt too status quo within their being and preferred a cyber orientation and perhaps wanted to leave “human” behind and become a machine.  Conversely, it has been desired for computers-full human intelligence. [9]

Some humans have desired a greater human-machine interface and to become “an object for designing.” In Cohen’s film, “Man and The Machine,” it was as if humans were phasing out.

[1] CROCKETT, L. The Turing Test and the Frame Problem : AI’s Mistaken Understanding of Intelligence. Norwood, N.J. : Intellect Books, 1994. (Ablex Series in Artificial Intelligence). ISBN: 9781567500301, Pg. 2

[2][2] Film:  Technoscience, Blurring the Lines Between Man and The Machine, by Lewis Cohen

[3] CROCKETT, L. The Turing Test and the Frame Problem : AI’s Mistaken Understanding of Intelligence. Norwood, N.J. : Intellect Books, 1994. (Ablex Series in Artificial Intelligence). ISBN: 9781567500301, Pg 1.

[4] Quote taken from Sasha Suvorkov said in conversation, unsure of originator.

[5] Changeux, Jean-Pierre. Mind/Brain/Behavior Initiative Ser. : L’ Homme de Vérité : Neuroscience and Human Knowledge. Cambridge, US: Harvard University Press, 2009. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 29 January 2017.

[6] McKeogh, Cathy, Understanding The Personal Computer, Darnley Publishing Group, 2016, pg, iv-v

[7] Changeux, Jean-Pierre. Mind/Brain/Behavior Initiative Ser. : L’ Homme de Vérité : Neuroscience and Human Knowledge. Cambridge, US: Harvard University Press, 2009. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 29 January 2017. Pg. 13

[8] Changeux, Jean-Pierre. Mind/Brain/Behavior Initiative Ser. : L’ Homme de Vérité : Neuroscience and Human Knowledge. Cambridge, US: Harvard University Press, 2009. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 29 January 2017. Pg.13

[9] CROCKETT, L. The Turing Test and the Frame Problem : AI’s Mistaken Understanding of Intelligence. Norwood, N.J. : Intellect Books, 1994. (Ablex Series in Artificial Intelligence). ISBN: 9781567500301, Pg 1.

 

 

What is the Turing Test as it relates to Artificial Intelligence?

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

“The Turing Test” was developed in 1954 by a Scientist named Alan Mathison Turing to understand via a conversational test whether or not a computer is thinking. [1] The challenge according Larry Crocket’s book “The Turing Test and The Frame Problem” may exist in the development of artificial intelligence and when differentiating between whether a computer has “genuine thinking or machine imitation thinking.”

Artificial Intelligence has been described loosely as “manufactured intelligence,” and further defined as “a branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of intelligent behavior in computers.”  Artificial intelligence is also defined as “The capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior.”[2]

Goals of the Turing Test may have been “The Turing Machine.”  The “Turing Machine is a hypothetical computing machine that has an unlimited amount of information storage, was developed by A.M. Turing an English Mathematician in 1954.[3]

Other goals for artificial intelligence that were suggested by Crocket were, “further cognitive abilities and computational psychology.”[4]

Significant publications about the Turing Test are A.M. Turing’s 1954 original article, “Computing Machinery and Intelligence,” which is also included in A.R. Anderson’s 1964 Anthology “Mind’s and Machines.” [5]  Later the A.M Turing’s article was also included in the “Oxford Companion to the Mind.”

More recent publications that shed light on the subject of the Turing Test as it relates to artificial intelligence include books on the Ablex Series in Artificial Intelligence by Yorick Wilks such as  “Chess and Machine Intuition,” by George W. Atkinson, “A Connectionist Language Generator,” by Nigel Ward, “Computer Language and Vision Across the Pacific,” by Yorick Wilks, “Declarative Semantics of Logic Programming,” by Michael Gelfond and Vladimir Lifschitz.

[1] MLA (Modern Language Assoc.)
Crockett, Larry. The Turing Test and The Frame Problem : AI’s Mistaken Understanding Of Intelligence. Norwood, N.J.: Intellect Books, 1994. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 29 Jan. 2017., Pg. 1

[2] Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012, pg. 70

[3] Merriam Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, Eleventh Edition, Encyclopedia Britannica, 2012, pg. 1358

[4] CROCKETT, L. The Turing Test and the Frame Problem : AI’s Mistaken Understanding of Intelligence. Norwood, N.J. : Intellect Books, 1994. (Ablex Series in Artificial Intelligence). ISBN: 9781567500301, Pg. 2.

[5] CROCKETT, L. The Turing Test and the Frame Problem : AI’s Mistaken Understanding of Intelligence. Norwood, N.J. : Intellect Books, 1994. (Ablex Series in Artificial Intelligence). ISBN: 9781567500301, Pg 1.

Book Review of “Complex Knowledge: Studies in Organizational Epistemology”

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

A review of “Complex Knowledge: Studies in Organizational Epistemology” by Haridimos Tsoukas provided a gripping portrayal of the issues involved in what is desired as a “field” rather than that which is-knowledge only based- of organizational studies and management research.

Tsoukas immediately grabs the hand of the reader and engages them with a riveting tale about fluxus theory which describes how the world flows, “fluxes”, “changes and how it’s sensitive to things such as context, time, beliefs, desires, power and loops.” He explains how the world is in fact an “open world” and not a closed world and goes on to develop the dialog into a parallel with the chaos and the cosmos. He goes deeper to make comparisons to “ecological theories” eg. fluxus in nature and still further to perhaps “Austrian Economics” or the diversity of mankind in terms of ethnography.  The research unravels and one is left connecting dots and looking at the evidence.

Tsoukas intended to make three key points in his book about complex knowledge, 1) regarding tacit knowledge, claims and adoption of ideas, 2) chaosmos, the mixture of chaos with cosmos parallel, and 3) in regards to the connected meta knowledge.

Tsoukas was concerned with “agency” in an organization, and “how organizational knowledge is embraced and informs practice.” Tsoukas advice to his reader was based on Weick’s quote was to “complicate yourself.”

Tsoukas goes on to break down research about the information marketplace quoting the MIT Media Lab and linking information with communication eg. computer and telephone as a new network system and subsequent knowledge system. The research transforms into a chilling thriller when Tsoukas begins to talk about how things turn into information and how things are experienced without being in close proximity. What stirs the reader later was the statement of “information at your fingertips.” The reader experiences both fear of and excitement for potential knowledge.

A few problems highlighted in the book describe all information turning into objects that are contained, stored and retrieved, the caricaturization of mankind in information systems and “observed purpose in information.”  Observed purpose in information related to an example where a condom manufacturer desired numeric data on the number of people having sexual intercourse.  For example, one could look at the population count and further to those in relationships or married to establish a statistic of likelihood or perhaps buried within the information marketplace information that is retrieved for purposes beyond “observed purposes.”

The cognitive wheels turning, in terms of organizational epistemology, how do all the dots connect?  One problem may exist where Tsoukas has justified evidence regarding “potential and absent.”  The evidence suggests the “finite” representation is never complete and that there is more in “reserve.”  “That to be aware of potential is to become.”  The crux had to do with the need for potential and how things could be different and how information was confined to what has been-“as are, not as might be.” The build-up of the book describes entrapment in the status quo by scholars who may fail to recognize potential.

Tsoukas research rejected rationalist epistemological approaches in favor of “post rationalism.” One goal of the book is to look at the nature of knowledge within an organizational context inclusive of “vocabulary, practice, enactment, mutual constitution, improvisation, and how an organization justifies what they know.”

One problem that organizations face is “overcoming dominant forms of knowing.” Tsoukas desires to replace dominant forms with complex forms of knowing thus the parallel to chaosmos and fluxus and ultimately a “theory of complexity.”  It becomes the sensitization of an organization to context, time, change, events, beliefs, desires etc.  Tsoukas presented an Empiricist model rejecting earlier Rationalist models which he wished to graduate from “within the world and within tradition” to discover “flow, flux, change.”

Early philosophers such as Heraclitus were also highlighted in the book. Heraclitus is a Greek Philosopher whose research had to do with change being fundamental to the Universe. Heraclitus has the famous quote that “no man ever steps in the same river twice.”  Part of Heraclitus “claim to fame” was that he “taught himself by questioning himself.[1]

“Diogenes relates that as a boy Heraclitus had said he “knew nothing” but later claimed to “know everything.”[14] His statement that he “heard no one” but “questioned himself,” can be placed alongside his statement that “the things that can be seen, heard and learned are what I prize the most.”[15][2]

               Heraclitus is perhaps the father of philosophy. Empiricism was concerned with a posteriori and more investigative models that were gained by experience. [3] Rationalist was concerned with a priori as if that which is from God or innate methods. Tsoukas overtly rejected innate concepts from Rationalism which his alignment with Heraclitus suggests.

A beautiful point the book makes has to do with the description of poetic praxeology.  The 7 points in poetic praxeology listed were: 1) motives in human action, 2) influence of past, 3) transmutation into new forms in present 4) opaque intentionality, 5) chance allowed events, 6) feedback loops, 7) context inescapable.  Tsoukas described “all humans as in fluxus.”

The book generally relies on social scientific and philosophical research to support its claims.  What becomes paramount in the book is a subtle goal about “how creative action arises.”

Useful philosophers listed in the book as relevant to Tsoukas research are: Bergson, Dewey, Gadaner, Heidegger, James, Lakeoff, Tyre, Polanzi, Toulmin, Taylor, Whitehead, Wittgenstein.

The book not an “art book” or “poetry book” but references popular or obscure concepts relevant to both.  Fluxus in Tsoukas book of “Complex Knowledge” whirls and dazzles and could buttress conceptual work related to fluxus in high art.   The book presents research which could become the frame work or seed of emergent fields of study which were formally housed in epistemology courses or in dialogs about knowledge.  “Complex Knowledge” presents well-crafted research, stylishly modeled after Konl Weick’s style of research. “Complex Knowledge” published on Oxford Press is very fine reading with lovely chaotic imagery, language, and relevant content.

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heraclitus

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heraclitus

[3] Markie, P. (2015). Rationalism vs. Empiricism in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (Summer 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).

 

 

 

JTB or Justified True Belief

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Knowledge can be described as “justified true belief.” It has to do with when one has proved or disproved a theory and created a hypothesis.  Often to arrive at knowledge and distinguish from belief one would use interviews and surveys to gather data and “peel away” to reveal the truth. For example journalists are careful with their language describing what they “believe” or what they “know.” Knowledge has to do with empiricism.

DeRose, K. (2005). What is Epistemology? A brief introduction to the topic. New Haven, CT: Campuspress, Yale University.

a Priori vs. a Posteriori in Discussions About Rationalism vs. Empiricism

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

A priori knowledge has to do with Rationalist theories such as “Intuition and Deduction Thesis” and “Innate Knowledge Thesis.”  A priori is as if to say “before” or for example from God.”  A priori has been described as that “perfect, eternal or unchanging….from God or that with which one is born, or from before.

A priori becomes paramount when one begins to look at “weaker or stronger understandings of warranted belief or at metaphysical research or research on for example assertion of moral truths.  A priori can be considered a “foundational knowledge.”

The main concern over the derivation of knowledge is when we begin to erect scaffoldings and take them to be truths.  Early man struggled to codify knowledge a priori or a posteriori-“dependent on the source of experience,” in order to omit fear to be mistaken and to build a knowledge at all.

Empiricism was concerned with a posteriori and Rationalist was concerned with a priori. Some thinkers felt that knowledge was gained by experience and rejected innate concepts.

Markie, P. (2015). Rationalism vs. Empiricism in The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, (Summer 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).

 

 

An Approach to Art Making #1

An Approach to art making can include diverse formulae. One such formula may root an art work in “research.” A body of research may form the foundation of an art work. A “rich” art work may result from a body of research.  Research may need to employ writing, to develop the art work or art works.  Without writing, it is difficult to have the dialog one needs to be engaged with an art work-before and after the art work. Research may also involve data collection or formal methods employed by scientists in, for example social methods or qualitative methods or quantitative research methods. An artist may also utilize methods in investigative journalism.

A second road may be a formula such as “Quepine (QPN),” Question, Proverb and News. Quepine can be a divine formula for beauty or knowledge or beauty from knowledge. Quepine is a formula that may result in sacred art works and make an artist wise. Quepine can root a subject matter in history by attaching it to news. News is history. Giving a subject history gives it depth and a road to travel on in time.  News has been a theme in art for along time.  News is used in wax print textiles, art, and music of certain cultures, especially African cultures, who may name a baby or feature a notable from the news.  In some of African music, the news may be right in the music. A small rural village, may become reliant on musicians to convey the news to the people via songs.  Also, some art schools, taught “news” as a way of plucking from current events, subjects relevant to the human condition as was done by a student colleague from the Parisian E’cole de Beaux Arts.  Human condition is not exclusive to the news, but it is a worthy method.  Human Condition was taught, perhaps, as a notch from existentialism and existentialism is perhaps “the root of art.”

Why this writer believes that existentialism is “the root of art”  is the relationship to “art” of the word in “Crackiola,”  “are-tea,” or  “our essence” or the “I AM” which was used by many super computers and by the Chinese Manufacturers.  The English language breaks down into codes and root systems.  Secondly, many crucial areas in art are easily organized around existentialism or the “I AM,” such as history, human condition, social, observational, humanitarian and so on.  Drawing, painting, sculpting and photography etc. may all be existential.

-Existentialism

“Planning” may also be something that architects utilize to build houses and could be a word that artists need. This writer was explained how an architect may have a very detailed and specific set of plans to build an exact design precisely and swiftly with all the electrical outlets etc. An artist may make “plans.” An art work based on plans may have an interesting result that is often mechanical or electrical or structural. Computer Aided Drafting may be utilized.

Recently, this writer was asked “what are your goals?” and “how will you design your studio?” right after. It was asked in a sewing class and functioned like an epiphany, the student began to develop this wild list of “sewing goals.”

If one picked up a good newspaper or a selection of newspapers and thought about say for example “world peace” or integrated social elements into ones goals their studio may take a different turn. What if one had an “umbrella” under which they were working from? An artist’s umbrella.

-Goals

– Studio Design

-Umbrella

“Technique” is the fourth road. Technique provides endless possibility. Most art schools provide students with strong technique backgrounds, which always serve an artist.  An artist may choose to  hinge their art work on a technique and be infinite within it.  Technique can be powerful when coupled with for example, “history.” Students of art may also embark on an existential path that explores diverse techniques.

“Studies” are another road that was used in Nikolai Gogol’s book “Diary of a Madman.” Studies can provide a context for future works or larger works or thumbnails or for manifestation.  With studies, one may take it apart in many ways, to ascertain many diverse things. Studies may lead to problem solving or product design or anything in the realm of possibility. Studies may serve government and help people to bridge gaps and jump over fences. In Gogol’s book, “Diary of a Madman,” his main character was engaged in studies and posted an ad in the newspaper to solicit clients for his portraiture.

-Research

-Quepine

-Planning (as in Architecture)

-Technique

-Studies

In the presence of writing an art work can literally fall- “when it falls.” When one is writing a book, for example and illustrating pages, drawings are easily pulled from text.

However, most art works are “site specific.” An artist can search for a locale, build a locale or create a site specific work of art.  Recently an artist went to plan an exhibition and recognized this phenomenon- that in fact an art work is almost always “site specific.” Or an art work can be adapted to a space and remade.

Another intersection I find very meaningful is “custom design,” for the artist and for the designer.  Custom design, commissions and site specific art works, bare a relationship. There is a necessity in art to think about space.

Custom Design may be very relevant to artists who in turn may pursue credentials from multidisciplinary design programs such as “MDP” in the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan.  Custom design may involve manufacturing, technology or systems design mixed with art works. For example “Church Pop,” may be installed in a house or perhaps a fiber art wall installation or a sound system. An artist may need to be an engineer. An artist’s ability to manifest their ideas has often been incongruent. But the creativity of an artist may place on paper, a vision for an entire city or even in exhibition unveil viable ideas to solve the world’s problems.

-When it falls

-Site Specific

-Custom Design

Or in the Middle East it has been said, to employ “finery techniques,” that “fine art should be fine.”  In the Middle East it is commonplace for a lot of people to reside in palaces, which would further create a desire for finery, or art that is compatible with the local architecture.

At Central Academy of Fine Art in China, they are painting birds and flowers-not exclusively. It was said to me by a Chinese Artist that “birds are always beautiful.” If you choose a beautiful subject, the result is almost always beautiful.

-Finery

Art Relevant Juncture has also to do with relevance itself. It was said to this artist that she has a “relevant” art work. That “the more relevant, perhaps the better the art,” was said by someone from the University of Michigan.

Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

(Excerpt from “Art Relevant Juncture,” by Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu based on her research about art.