Up to Snuff #45: Crime Fiction or the Detective Novel and Theory of Probability, How Mathematics May have been a Catalyst By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Up to Snuff #45:  Crime Fiction or the Detective Novel and Theory of Probability, How Mathematics May Have Been a Catalyst

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Perhaps it was the inclusion of local events that made detective novels popular to the masses.  In “Crime Fiction’s” Chapter 3 it says, “Juxtaposing fragmented selections of events from the contemporary world (became) a form of amusement for the mass public.”  (Priestman, Crime Fiction, page 41)  It may have also been the inclusion of social phenomenon outside the norm like “Experiences of a Lady Detective” in fields where women were just beginning to enter after World War I which may have been radical and was cited as written anonymously.  It was also likely very exciting the inclusion of contemporary science and technology in Arthur B. Reeves or in L.T. Meade’s “Stories from the Diary of a Doctor,” or perhaps naturalist works which were found in Arnold Bennett, HG Wells and Arthur Morrison’s “A Child of the Jago.”   What often occurred in detective novels was a pulling of events from newspapers which could create a stir when literary parallels current events.  The use of the detective short story in magazines likely also contributed to its mass popularity.

Feeding on the media and current events can be interesting.  How current events or items in the news get reinvented. In the art world especially, African Art, alot gets pulled from the media to work on when researching the human condition.  When you pull from the news in art you can get historical works.  The chronology at the front of, “The Cambridge Companion to Crime Fiction,” was really great in tying in world events with literary events that sprouted soon after.  The bibliographies, bios, and chronology are really fantastic to peruse and spend a great deal of time on them-it was nice to see “these elements” and utilize them to better one’s own writing and research.

In “Murder of the Rue Morgue” by Edgar Allan Poe, early imagery about games leads one to think about the “eliminations” as in chess and within investigations or what was described later as the “Theory of Probabilities.” Poe wrote that, “Coincidences, in general, are great stumbling blocks in the way of the class of thinkers, who have been educated to know nothing of the Theory of Probabilities-that theory to which the most glorious objects of human research are indebted for the most glorious of illustration.” (Poe, The Murders in the Rue Morgue, page 25) Theory of Probabilities may have been the actual foundation for detective, mystery and crime based fiction as well as many “games” (Chess etc.) that were emerging, that may have been based on the pioneering “Murders of the Rue Morgue” publication in 1841, one of the first, or vice a versa. Writers may have become enchanted with deduction as a means of exaltation. There may have been subtle clues like the use of what appeared to be a vintage spelling of clue, “clew,” that was claw-like.  There was also the name “Moreau” that suggested, “more water” which could have led one to a sailor or having a water relation.  Perhaps the sailor was an “assailant” and clearly evident was an adjacent assailant with a claw. The actual use of the word assailant, later on, may have paid homage to Poe, as a pioneer or perhaps the initiator of this genre.  The use of mockery by an ourang-outang of the sailor with a razor was interesting and perhaps Darwinian.  The choice of the passive killer was interesting as well as the birth imagery via the “thrusting up a chimney head downward.” The language around the “united vigor of several persons” was beautiful. (Poe, The Murders in the Rue Morgue, Pg. 25)   In Poe’s Murder of the Rue Morgue, there were undertones that could impact foreign affairs; there was almost a theory of man, his birth, his war and his evolution.

Perhaps it was, in fact, the unity in scholarship that paralleled mathematics to mystery when using the deductive processes like for example an algebraic equation and “solve for x.” Many early writers were in fact scholars and mathematics was in its prime.  Areas in mathematics that could relate to the advent of detective novels were finite math, probability and statistics, and algebra.  Detective novels were likely also made popular by the male macho, that enjoys exaltation and may find pleasure in the suspense or the chase.

Priestman, Martin, The Cambridge Companion to Crime Fiction, Cambridge University Press, 2004

Poe, Edgar Allan, “The Murders in the Rue Morgue,” Classic Crime Stories, Edited by James Daley, Dover Publications, 2007, Pg. 1-34

“The Funnel System Method” by Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Running head     THE FUNNEL SYSTEM METHOD:  USING QUALITY CONTROL, PROBLEM SOLVING AND ETHICS TO TRAIN RESEARCH LAB WORKERS AT THE INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, SURVEY SERVICES LAB

 

  • Diffuse, Supersede and Unlearn Biases in the Workplace using Neutrality Training
  • Advanced Behavior Modification
  • Managing Workplace Relationships
  • Solving Problems in the Workplace, Handling Crisis and Mistakes Successfully
  • Case Studies Highlighting 10 Ways to Improve Quality of Performance, Products, Services and Workplace Climate

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Norwich University

 

Author Notes

Afua Osei-Bonsu, Department of Interdisciplinary Studies in Leadership, Norwich University

Afua Osei-Bonsu is now a student of Communication 301, Technical and Professional Writing

(Adjunct Professor, Dr. Melanie Schultz)

This research is supported by Kreitzberg Library, Research data and observation from the Institute for Social Research & Osei-Bonsu Family Trust

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Afua Osei-Bonsu at 422 Pearl Street #1B Ypsilanti, Michigan, 48197

Contact:  afua.oseibonsu@gmail.com

 

THE FUNNEL SYSTEM METHOD:  USING QUALITY CONTROL, PROBLEM SOLVING AND ETHICS TO TRAIN RESEARCH LAB WORKERS AT THE INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, SURVEY SERVICES LAB

Abstract

The achievement of quality can be like a funnel system where one is perfecting and then stream lines.  One idea is to perform frequent QC early on to perfect and change employee performance, before things become habits or patterns.  One must learn how to obtain methods that instill constant and regular improvement.

The overall comparison will be done with Chinese Manufacturers and to a local Research Insti­­tute at the University of Michigan, the Institute for Social Research (ISR) as a workplace example.  This proposals conclusion looks at several case studies to compile a list of ~10 ways to improve the quality of performance, products, services and workplace climate.

The proposal will highlight problem solving in the workplace, the building in or inclusion of ethics in design by collecting examples of ethics from multiple case studies. Third, this proposal will examine a list of key research points around the achievement of quality both within an organization, its organizational leadership plan and by juxtaposition of a national plan for the achievement quality.

Some goals of this research may be for refinement, perfection, and precision to achieve a high quality.  The idea is to create something that can be standardized in the form of a sample, bar, or boundary, a work ethic or style manual.  The goal is to minimize and eradicate human and machine error.  The end result may be inclusive of a variety of technological products, trainings, literature, and possibly an acronym to support the achievement of quality as an educational, workplace and national goal.

Another idea proposed for this research is to use the development of professionalism as catalyst of quality and generate advanced research around professionalism.  Proposal also looks at ways of achieving “ideals” as within the scope of high quality.

One method currently used at the ISR where workers leave stuffed envelopes for research mailings and boxes unsealed that a “QC” checks for accuracy at the second stage and seals envelopes and boxes to achieve an error free product, therefore establishing quality.

What is inspiring about QA/QC in general is the idea that whole nations have perfected themselves, all of their methods, management systems, their bodies, schools and education.

One could take for example a written survey questionnaire that is called the “SAFTEE” which is composed of a list of human physical areas with corresponding questions used to ascertain the status of the body and gauge the impact of healing or medications on overall physical quality.  One may attempt to blank slate or free the body of flaws, scars, or illness.  One may alternatively attempt to advance the abilities of his or her being or achieve a greater degree of quality of life, beauty, work skills and resulting high quality by products. Things such as strength training or laser surgery may be utilized to achieve quality.  This example of how to achieve a “quality being” by modifying some prior use research techniques is just one example of what a nation may engage in to improve on the overall quality of its people.

 

Key Words:

“QA has to do with plans that a researcher has for minimizing and measuring error in his or her research.  QC is the actual procedures implemented in the research.”[1]

Quality Assurance-A Program for the systematic monitoring and evaluation of the various aspects, of a project, service, of a facility to ensure the standards of quality are being met.

 

Literature Review

Author will address a “convergent model” as compared to a funnel system, at first broad then streamlining.  “The Funnel System Method” will use actual empirical case studies of a  research lab, the Survey Services Lab at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan juxtaposed with texts that highlight managing quality in terms of projects, critical quality themes, utilization of professional standards, practical approaches to quality control and alternative quality methods such as the “Lean Six Sigma,” by Carreira that involves powerful actions to improve quality, increase speed and reduce waste.  Special attention will be paid to how to improve overall techniques and theories regarding quality to enhance performance in organizations.

Other aspects included in the convergent model “The Funnel System Method,” include research in texts about ethics in the workplace in texts such as “Professionalism, boundaries and the workplace,” by Malin.  The third key element in the in the Funnel System Method will be the use of practical problem solving skills.

The research from key references along with case studies will form the basis of a new method to be utilized in presentations, trainings and later teaching.  A comprehensive list of quality, ethics and problems solving texts will be compiled from the Kreitzberg Library for use in later PHD studies.

The idea has to do with the start of employment and how key training will advance a novice worker from the general population into a professional employee with expertise. Primary research will come from case studies and actual analysis of the workplace.

The long term goal of research in such texts is to disseminate training materials and  work products that facilitate specific key goals including the achievement of quality, ethics and problem solving skills in the workplace.

 

THE FUNNEL SYSTEM METHOD:  USING QUALITY CONTROL, PROBLEM SOLVING AND ETHICS TO TRAIN RESEARCH LAB WORKERS AT THE INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, SURVEY SERVICES LAB

 

Illustration 1 Funnel System Method

THE FUNNEL SYSTEM METHOD:  USING QUALITY CONTROL, PROBLEM SOLVING AND ETHICS TO TRAIN RESEARCH LAB WORKERS AT THE INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, SURVEY SERVICES LAB

 

Table of Contents

Letter of Transmittal                                                                                                            1

Title page                                                                                                                                2

Abstract                                                                                                                                  3-4

Literature Review                                                       —————————————–         4-5

Funnel System Illustration                                                                                                     6

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   7

List of Illustrations                                                                                                                 8

Statement of the Problem                                                                                                       9

Background                                                                                                                            9-10     Proposed Solutions                                                                                                     10

Diffuse, supersede and unlearn biases                                                                                   10

Advanced Behavior Modification                                                                                          10

Managing Workplace Relationships                                                                                      10

Solving Problems in the Workplace                                                                                       11

Quality from Professional Standard to Alternative Quality Methods                                               11

Implementation Steps for Key Decision Maker                                                                     11-12

Conclusion                                                                                                                              12

Appendix A:——————————————————————————————–n/a

Appendix B:                                                                                                                           n/a

References                                                                                                                                       13

 

THE FUNNEL SYSTEM METHOD:  USING QUALITY CONTROL, PROBLEM SOLVING AND ETHICS TO TRAIN RESEARCH LAB WORKERS AT THE INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, SURVEY SERVICES LAB

 

A List of Illustrations

Illustration 1:   Funnel System Method                                                                                       6

THE FUNNEL SYSTEM METHOD:  USING QUALITY CONTROL, PROBLEM SOLVING AND ETHICS TO TRAIN RESEARCH LAB WORKERS AT THE INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, SURVEY SERVICES LAB

 

Statement of Problem

What is wrong?  Staff  are continuously affected by uncovered or underdeveloped areas in training that may impact staff retention and workplace climate.  What is needed are advanced training modules that are inclusive of key skill sets and impact employee relationships, biases, workplace climate and the achievement of quality.  Who will be impacted by the problem are all faculty & staff of ISR, including contingent staff and ISR as a model Research Institute that may impact similar organizations.

Background

The Institute for Social Research houses the SRO or Survey Research Operations inclusive of the Survey Services Lab and the Survey of Consumer Attitudes Team in Ann Arbor, Michigan on the campus of University of Michigan.  ISR uses “nationally representative samples of households in the contiguous United States that are designed to measure changes in consumer attitudes and expectations.” (SCA Interviewer Project Manual, Pg. 1)

ISR is the largest Social Research Institute in the United States that looks at what “consumers think about economic events under various circumstances and the reasons for their opinions.” (SCA Interview Project Manual, Pg. 1)  The basic idea is that “changes in consumer attitudes will come before changes in behaviors, therefore expectations can act as leading indicators of the  aggregate economy.” (SCA Interview Project Manual, Pg.1)

The Survey Services Lab houses the Survey of Consumer Attitudes team on the ground floor of the Perry Building at ISR.  The typical mode of work is in front of a computer, with a telephone and headset in a cubicle where a variety of SSL team members will complete tasks including QC, RDD or Random Digit Dialing to complete sample group interviews with respondents, taking incoming calls from sample groups, completing training modules, using GIT or General Interviewing Techniques or overseeing the lab in various management capacity. The secondary work is completing large research mailings or assembly of research binders. The third mode of work is the use of conference rooms to complete focus groups. The perhaps fourth mode of the research institute is to administer the masters and doctorate programs in survey research methodology.

“The SCA was started in 1946 by George Katona and is now run by Principal Investigator Richard Curtin since 1976.” (SCA Interview Project Manual, Pg. 1)

 

THE FUNNEL SYSTEM METHOD:  USING QUALITY CONTROL, PROBLEM SOLVING AND ETHICS TO TRAIN RESEARCH LAB WORKERS AT THE INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, SURVEY SERVICES LAB

 

Each month about 600 numbers are included in a new sample group, 400 new and 200 “recon” or reconnect from 6 months earlier. The SCA Team sets out to contact out of a representative pool respondents to interview and collect data.  Production interviews are recorded in the CXM System and calls are generated using Genesys RDD.  “QC from each shift randomly selects and reviews the recordings of each interviewer and for adherence to General Interviewing Technique and recording data properly.” (SCA Interview Project Manual, Pg. 4)

Problems that arise in research labs are sometimes consistent with all workplace environments combating varieties of biases without training. Locations with RDD or Random Digit Dialing and frequent QC may also be host to “negative treatment” and little or few appreciative techniques and appreciation in the end impacts their bottom line. There is sometimes little or no training for how to handle mistakes, solve problems, manage people positively, and how to eradicate workplace gossip that impacts employee’s careers. The problem continues how to improve the quality of research, the quality of research teams and their respective products.

Proposed Solutions to Problems in the Workplace

Diffuse, Supersede and Unlearn Biases in the Workplace using Neutrality Training

Problems in the work place, such as biases can be diffused, superseded or unlearned with use of “neutrality” training.  The basic idea is that employees choose a “neutral status” and utilize techniques for maintaining that neutrality within their work place relationships and effectively moving away from biases that promote negative ideas to employee.

Advanced Behavior Modification

Advanced behavior modification training is needed to funnel employee from general population into trained interviewer or other.  Often in QC patterns are uncovered that need advanced behavior modification training to impact the perfection and precision of GIT or General Interview Technique Protocols.

Managing Workplace Relationships

Managing work place relationships has to do with appreciation techniques that ultimately impact an employee’s bottom line and companies’ bottom line. An employee can be given positive feedback to begin to illicit good behaviors.  An employee’s positive feedback is what is discussed in employee reviews and what will decide an employee’s status and raises. Employee’s need help with the creation of professional boundaries, and how to establish a positive employee perspective to maintain the work place climate.  Workers need policy to reflect boundaries that protect workers privacy and direct casual talk about worker that impacts their career.

 

Solving Problems in the Workplace, Handling Crisis and Mistakes Successfully

This paper supports creating training modules for solving problems in the work place, handling crisis and mistakes, via specific case studies that look at typical problems with which workers are confronted.  This paper aims to create an ethics based research and design an ethics training around specific work place problem areas.  This researcher found that the handling of problems may be impacted one by bias, and two by a lack of skill for handling the specific problem and the person or employees who may have made a mistake or be in crisis.

Case Studies Highlighting 10 Ways to Improve Quality of Performance, Products, Services and Workplace Climate

Quality at ISR may be impacted by use of professional standards.  One good example is in basic workplace daily use design and cleanliness. If each employee is taught a basic standard practice to follow, such as how to clean and prepare their work station before and after shifts.  Professional Standards are also impacted when employees are trained to package mailings or assemble binders. Employees may need to be provided a “work sample,” to match, and a work progress demonstration to follow to achieve a high quality finished product.  Specific issues arise in simple or basic assembly line functions including how and where in the assembly line one performs tasks, the direction and flow of work, eg. an employee may try to go backwards down the assembly line.  For example when assembling binders employees may pull all consecutive pages from a list for insertion “in a station” (not on the assembly line) to quickly assemble binders.

Quality is impacted by the first impression, the last impression and the constant impression.  Quality is also impacted by frequent QC at the start of employment to funnel employee into a professional with expertise via training and experience.  There are practical approaches to quality control and alternative quality methods to be explored to improve quality, increase speed and reduce waste.  Setting goals and basic expectations, utilizing policy, manuals and style manuals improve quality.

Implementation steps required for decision maker

1 Serve on diversity and inclusion sub committee

2 research

3 Design training materials

4 Software engineer/training software

5 publish books

6 Set up training conference at UM

THE FUNNEL SYSTEM METHOD:  USING QUALITY CONTROL, PROBLEM SOLVING AND ETHICS TO TRAIN RESEARCH LAB WORKERS AT THE INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL RESEARCH, SURVEY SERVICES LAB

 

7 Augment policies, manuals, procedure to reflect changes

8 Create style manual

9 Implement necessary work place changes

10 Inform employees, media, public, disseminate

 

Conclusion

The research from key references along with case studies will form the basis of a new method to be utilized in power point presentations and later teaching.  A comprehensive list of quality, ethics and problem solving texts will be compiled from the Kreitzberg Library for use in later PHD studies.

The idea has to do with the start of employment and how key training will advance a novice worker from the general population into a professional employee with expertise. Primary research will come from case studies and actual analysis of the workplace.

The long term goal of research in such texts is to disseminate training materials and work products that facilitate specific key goals including the achievement of quality, ethics and problem solving skills in the workplace.

The above research is also valuable for advanced training of CEO’s who may plan for a particular skill set that will impact their distinct contribution as well as the work place.

 

 

 

 

 

THE FUNNEL SYSTEM METHOD: USING QUALITY CONTROL, PROBLEM SOLVING AND ETHICS TO TRAIN RESEARCH LAB WORKERS

 

References

Basu, R. (2012). Managing quality in projects (Advances in project management). Burlington, Vt.: Gower.

Beckford, J. (1998). Quality : A Critical Introduction. London: Routledge.

Bone, D. (1989). Quality at work : A personal guide to professional standards (Fifty-Minute series) . Los Altos, Calif.: Crisp.

Caplen, R. (1970). A practical approach to quality control. Princeton N.J: Brandon/Systems Press.

Carreira, B. (2006). Lean six sigma that works : A powerful action plan for dramatically improving quality, increasing speed, and reducing waste. New York: American Management Association.

Cole, R. (1997). Improving theory and research on quality enhancement in organizations : Report of a workshop (The compass series). Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Hinds, P. (2002). Distributed work. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Kennedy, George E. & Montgomery, Tracy T., Technical and Professional Problem Solving, Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 2002

Malin, N. (2000). Professionalism, boundaries and the workplace. London: Routledge.

Schoeman, C. (2014). Ethics can : Managing ethics in the workplace. Randburg: Knowres Publishing.

SRC Survey Research Center, Interviewer Project Manual:  Surveys of Consumers (SCA), University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research

Taylor, J. (1994). Practical problem-solving skills in the workplace (Self-paced learning for a fast-paced world). Place of publication not identified: American Management Association.

Wheeler, S. (2007). Ethics in the workplace. Law and Critique, 18(1), 1-28. doi:10.1007/s10978-006-9008-9

 

Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu, A00864242

 

 

[1] Carpi, Anthony & Egger, Anne E.,  “Uncertainty, Error and Confidence,” Visionlearning, www.visionlearning.com

Luxurious Insect Removal #2: 10 Bug Tricks

Luxurious Insect Removal #2:  10 Bug Tricks

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

  • Use a bug spray from Home Depot to spray a boundary around the perimeter of your building or house to block bugs out.
  • Spray a little bug spray on or near the food of an animal to make an animal leave your property, eg. Possums leave if some bug spray is sprayed on leaves.
  • For a locust in the house that likes light or flies near a light source, turn off all lights and open the front door, it will sense outside air and fly out after you take away the light it’s attracted to. (don’t swat, or squash or trap) Also close doors to rooms. But the whole town has to be sprayed to get them out.  Locusts may even be something evolutionary biologists created for wars.  Often using planes and stuff to get them out.  They have a hard shell, they sting and are venomous.
  • For strange bugs that get in the walls of your home, drill a hole in the wall and shoot a “bug bomb” in there often used for lice from animals etc. Available at hardware stores.
  • Fill all holes with spackle left from picture hangers, screws and nails to keep bugs out.
  • Paint with sealer or regular paint to find creative ways to fill holes where bugs get in. Also keep walls clean by painting or cleaning so there is no oil on walls for bugs to live on.
  • Baseboards also keep bugs out.
  • Trap certain kinds of bugs, vindictive bugs like scorpion, under a mug or glass, slide underneath a cardboard or record or something thin and strong you find around the house then remove from the house and release outside.
  • Tarantula’s look really ominous but have soft bodies that die easily. Use a broom or a book or the bottom of a shoe to kill a tarantula quickly. For household spiders, keep house free of webs and dust.  A shoe or a book or many hard surfaced items kill spiders quickly.  Try not to spray or aggravate them. Black Magic etc. in many countries makes for many tarantulas for sale.
  • For cockroaches seal all holes to keep them out. Study where and how they get in. Try using sealers and bombs, closing off entry points and spray a heavy duty home depot spray.  There are some outside companies that for a few hundred dollars will close off all your holes with foams etc. and keep them out successfully. Plus getting poison to their nest. (Absolute Death, NYC)

 

 

 

 

 

Up to Snuff #35: Comparing Letter of Transmittal, Abstract and Introduction within a Proposal

Up to Snuff #35:  Comparing Letter of Transmittal, Abstract and Introduction within a Proposal
By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Letter of Transmittal-According to The Mayfield Handbook of Technical and Scientific Writing Section 2.5.3 from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology website (http://web.mit.edu/course/21/21.guide/l-trans.htm), the Letter of Transmittal should be brief and is synonymous with a “Cover Letter.”  The first paragraph describes “what is being sent and the purpose for sending it.”  Common conventions used in a Letter of Transmittal are the terminology “herewith” in the first paragraph and in the second paragraph “passive voice” very often in reference to estimates in grant proposals.  For example one may write I submit____herewith a proposal entitled____ to be performed under my direction in_________.  In the second paragraph one may write something like “I am requesting in the amount of ______total estimated for the period of_____through_____.”  Use of passive voice in the second paragraph statement with the verb “to be” in front of request is considered appropriate.

“A longer transmittal letter may summarize the key elements of the proposal in one or two sentences and provide the recipient with other useful information. A Transmittal Letter or cover letter accompanies a larger item usually a document.  A Transmittal Letter provides the recipient with a specific context in which to place the larger document and simultaneously giving the sender a permanent record of having sent the material.  End Transmittal Letters with one sentence paragraph that establishes “goodwill” by thanking or complimenting the recipient. (“The Mayfield Handbook of Technical and & Scientific Writing,” Section 2.5.3, http://web.mit.edu/course/21/21.guide/l-trans.htm)

End with for any questions relating to technical aspects etc. contact and phone number.  The goodwill statement can be something like “your consideration of my proposal is greatly appreciated.”  Also end with enclosures:  Proposal and cc:

An Abstract- According to the Purdue Owl, “an Abstract is a brief summary of the paper allowing readers to quickly review the main points and purpose of the paper.  An Abstract should be between 150-250 words, abbreviations and acronyms used in the paper should be defined in the abstract.  The word abstract should be centered and typed in 12 point Times New Roman.  Do not indent the first line of the Abstract paragraph.  All other paragraphs in the paper should be indented.”   (Purdue Owl, APA Sample Paper, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/)

The examples Purdue Owl uses, “this paper explores 4 published articles that report on results from research conducted on online and offline relationships and their relationship to computer mediated communication.  Some questions proposed by Purdue owl in an abstract are:  How they vary?  What they suggest in articles?  Definitions?  Whose research was examined?  How they influence subject of proposal? Keywords?

Introduction to a Proposal-“Title should be centered on page and 12 point Times New Roman font not bolded, underlined or italicized.  The introduction presents the problem that the paper addresses.”  Numerous studies have been conducted (their focus), however what results indicated, due to what circumstances, who suggests what, to understand problem what should be studied, what paper examines.  If article has 3 to 5 authors write out all of the author’s names first time they appear, then first author’s last name followed by “et. Al””

(Purdue Owl, APA Sample Paper, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/)

How similar? One is often summarizing in a specific way key elements.  Sometimes they are presenting the proposal, sometimes presenting the problem, sometimes summarizing the paper.

Why not redundant in purpose? Each topic has its task to achieve.

References

Kennedy, Goerge E & Tracy T. Montgomery, Technical and Professional Writing:  Solving Problems at Work, Upper Saddle River, NJ Prentice Hall

Purdue Owl, APA Sample Paper, https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/

Perelman, Leslie & Paradis, James &, Barret, Edward, Mayfield Handbook of Technical & Scientific Writing, McGraw-Hill Companies, The, 1/17/1997, Transmittal Letter, Section 2.5.3, http://web.mit.edu/course/21/21.guide/l-trans.htm

Techlit #1

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

I had an interesting experience working in an online environment, with remote teams and remote management.  It was really nice how teams met in online rooms via passwords and used chat support systems and microphone systems, head sets etc.  What I liked about it was having my own “cockpit” at home and a complete online environment where you can go room to room that is all virtual.  We also used several databases to access the relevant information.  Perhaps one database is for policies, a second may be for repairs, a third may be for hardware support and tech issues.  I worked by phone to quickly access using search functions within a database and then to achieve whatever task needed to be done by phone and giving direction or talking through the specific steps.  I used a live database and went also between several databases quickly. Also the online pages are full of buttons and links to connect one to management or a variety of necessary work components.   It took several minutes maybe 20, to log into all the passwords and actually arrive to work.  I could sync devices, I could handle gaming issues, I could explain how to’s, I may look at billing issues or have a question for chat myself, or need to escalate.  I think that was one type of work environment of the future.  It was amazing how to train, work, manage, communicate completely virtual and remote.  I would like to see more elements like that in companies that help with collaborations internationally etc.

Up to Snuff #34: Book List, Social Sciences and Data Rich Writing

Up To Snuff #34: Book List, Social Sciences and Data Rich Writing

Compiled by, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

 

The Aging Consumer, Aimee Praht

Survey Methodology, Wiley, Robert M. Graves

Envisioning the Survey, Interview of the Future, Frederick Conrad

Voting Technology, Paul Herrnson

Working and Poor, Rebecca M. Blank

Telephone Survey Methodology, Wiley, James M. Lepkowski

Process of Social Research (textbooks.com)

Practice of Social Research (textbooks.com)

Social Inequality:  Patterns & Processes

Introduction to Sociology (Barnes and Noble)

Tavistock Institute:  Social Engineering and The Masses, Estulin

Beyond Obamacare:  Life, Death and Social Policy, James M. House

 

home.isr.umich.edu/research/data/

Population Studies Center maintains a database of citations to reports, journal articles, chapters, books and manuscripts

 

http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/prba/

Program for Research on Black Americans

 

The Attica Prison Uprising of 1971 and its Legacy, Heather Ann Thompson (Pulitzer)

Social Profile of Detroit

Research Methods in the Behavioral Sciences

The Inner American and Mental Health in America

1960 The American Voter

Survey Sampling, Leslie Kish, 1965

Social Psychology of Organizations 1966, Robert Kahn & Daniel Katzs

The Mere Exposure Effect, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, Bob Zajonc

Questions and Answers in Surveys, Howard Schuman & Stanley Presser

 

 

The above was extracted from the Institute for Social Research (ISR) at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor websites.

Up to Snuff #33: Book List, Writing Technical, Scientific and Content

Up to Snuff #33:   Book List, Writing Technical, Scientific and Content

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Writing Well, Edition 9, Pearson, By Donald Hall

Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science by Michael Alley

The Mayfield Handbook of Technical and Scientific Writing by Leslie Perelman, James Paradis, & Edward Barret, McGraw-Hill Companies, The, 1/17/1997

Article:  Scholarly Voice:  Avoiding Bias

The Gregg Reference Manual

The Why Factor

Statistical Techniques in Business and Economics By Douglas Lind

Formal Language Theory, Noam Chomsky

Practical Knowledge By Martin Heidegger

 

Up to Snuff #32: Book List, Ancient Writings with Names of Historical Universities

Up to Snuff #32:  Book List: Ancient Writings with Names of Historical Universities

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Physics 1-8 Aristotle

On Generation & Perishing, Aristotle

De Caelo (On the Heavens), Aristotle

Meteorology, Aristotle

De Generation et Corruptine, Aristotle

On coming to be and passing away, Aristotle

Ackrill, JL  Change and Aristotle’s Theological Argument

Bodnar, Istvan, Movers and Elemental Motions in Aristotle

Bodnar, Istvan, Aristotle’s Natural Philosophy

Starry Messenger, Galileo

Two New Sciences (Physics) Galileo

De Motu Cordis (On the Motion of the Heart)

Le Monde (The World) Descartes

Micrographia, Hooke

Dialog on the Two Chief World Systems (Aristotle, Copernicus)

Principia Philosophiae Naturelis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy) Isaac Newton

Dr Rerum Natura ( On the Nature of Things) Lucretius

Elements of Geometry, Euclid

Almagest, By Claudius Ptolemy

On the Sacred Disease (Epilepsy)

On the Nature of Man, Hippocrates

Aphorisms, Hippocratic Works

Physicists, Aristotle

Scala Natural, Aristotle

Corpus Aphorisms, Aristotle

Galen

Meditations, Emperor Marcus Aurelius

On the Use of the Parts, Galen

Al-Jabr, Arab Mathematician, Algebra Book

Cannon of Medicine, Avicenna

House of Wisdom (Bagdad)

Plato’s Academy, Athens

University of Bologna

Padua

Montpellier

Cologne

Oxford

Cambridge

(Theology, Law, Medicine, Arts, Science)

Paraclesus, Anatomy & Astronomy

Versalius  Anatomical Illustrations of Human Body, “De Humani Corporis Fabrica” on the structure of the human body

De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, (Revolution of the heavenly bodies), Copernicus

The Origin of Continents and Oceans, By Alfred Wegener

Thesaurus Geographicus, Abraham Ortelius

Of Dignity and The Advancement of Learning, Bacon

Novem Organum, Aristotle

Discourse on the Method, Descartes

Dialogue Concerning Two Chief World Systems, Ptolemic & Copernican, Galileo

Two New Sciences, Galileo

The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, By Sir Isaac Newton

References

Gower, B. (1996). Scientific Method : A Historical and Philosophical Introduction

Bynum, William, A Little History of Science, Yale University Press, 2012

Bodnar, Istvan, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), .

Up to Snuff #31: Helpful Websites, Tips for Journalists and Generally Getting Data Rich Writing or Searching for a Boiler Plate or Template

Up To Snuff #31:  Helpful Websites, Tips for Journalists and Generally Getting Data Rich Writing or Searching for a Boiler Plate/Template

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

http://www.writing.engr.psu.edu/workbooks/proposals.html

http://www.craftofscientificwriting.com/correspondence.html

 

https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/18/

Templates, APA Style etc.

 

web.mit.edu/course/21/21.guide/l-trans.htm

 

http://www.buisnesswritingblog.com/business_writing/20171

Clarity, Conciseness and Zing + more 262 Ways to Take Business Writing Beyond the Basics

Help Employees to Write Better

Syntax Training.com/classes

Proofreading like a pro

Error Free Documents

How to build great work relationships one message at a time

Lynn Gaerther Johnston

 

www.ncbi.nlm.gov/home/learn/

U.S. National Library of Medicine

National Institute of Health

National Center for Bio Technology

Information

Controlled Studies Research Writings Database

 

https://history.state.gov/

School Libraries

 

www.masterclass.com/classes/David-Mamet-teaches-dramatic

www.merriam-webstercollegiate.com/free

Download Dictionary with purchase of new dictionary get key code

 

For Journalists

Congressional Record or State Legislature Records

Ethnographies

Monographs

Journal Articles

Connected to Library Databases

Library of Congress

Law Database

 

Institute for Social Research

Press.sca.isr.umich.edu

Data.sca.isr.umich.edu

http://www.sca.isr.umich.edu/tables.html

 

Newspaper Archives

Washington Post

China Times

Al Jazeera

NY Times

The Guardian

The Chicago Reader

Associated Press

CNN

BBC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Demystifying Vaccines, What Current Reports are saying

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

1) Originally reported to elicit the retraction of the UK’s “Lancet” paper that alleged a link between developmental disabilities such as autism mixed with bowel disorders and colitis with the MMR Vaccine were several charges including : 1) “manufactured appearance of purported medical syndrome by Andrew Wakefield,” 2) “findings and results of a small sample group were reported as facts,” 3) “clinical records were reinterpreted to suit self (Wakefield)”, 4) there was no record of children’s health concerns with National Health Service, 5) “omitted correct information about purpose of the study,” 6) “Wakefield cited for dishonesty by Medical Research Council Panel in regards to sources of funding and who patients were”, 7) ‘illegally obtained Legal Aid monies to pay for study,” 8) anonymized patients, 9) disbelief in probability that 12 families went to same hospital at same time for same thing in a matter of days.
2) Why the premeditated selection of patients was such a damnable offense by Wakefield was that it presented an inaccurate sample group, too small and without geographical range which suggests an improbable statistic that these 12 anonymized cases be representative of the whole. What was truly devastating about the Wakefield allegations were that needed vaccine usage plummeted and could have triggered epidemics. One consequence that was described in “Statistics in Medical Research” by P. Sprent has to do with “when resources are wasted when trial or experiment is too small to have any hope of determining whether or not a potentially important treatment response occurs..” Sprent claims that “statistics provide rational measures to reflect the degree of uncertainty associated with databased assertions.” Sprent goes on to say that “statistics provide indicators as to how well data conforms to mathematical models.” The statistician needs assurance that “the number of cases selected is adequate to make inferences.” The use of a sample group to make inferences relevant to a population is called inferential statistics. Statisticians are said by Sprent to “sometimes make further assumptions that are only approximately true in order to calculate the relevant measures.”
3) 3a) How the scientific process is self-correcting has to do with testing and replication of a hypothesis and peer review. Wakefield was eventually subject to peer review that tested his hypothesis and refuted it. All science is subject to this way of “replication” which as a rule weeds out weak hypotheses.
Was it in the end incumbent upon a British journalist, Brian Deer, to expose Wakefield’s fraudulent activity and business practices in a sensational series of articles? Was journalism in fact Wakefield’s police? Many people with “fear unleashed” by Wakefield’s alleged linkage of disease with vaccination potentially killed or injured or was impetus for epidemics. Science may not have covered the issues to the extent necessary or swiftly enough to save lives. The original article in United Kingdom’s “The Lancet” medical paper was not retracted for ~12 years and many people suffered insecurity with said information. There were not credible sources to verify the information and it was followed by widespread mistrust of medicine. Wakefield appeared to profiteer in a bewildering fashion and it is unclear where to find the checks and balances for healthcare profiteering. It is as if in the case of Wakefield who desired to form a company based on an anti vaccine hypothesis and related bio engineering technologies such as a molecular viral diagnostic test for Britain and America that he hoped to profit 72.5m pounds a year from.
3c) The results were startling. According to the “Jenny McCarthy Body count” which contains
Statistics from up until 2015. McCarthy reported that the anti-vaccine movement and televised promotion by celebrities from June 3rd, 2007 to July 18, 2015 there were ~152,763 directly related preventable illnesses. From June 3rd, 2007 to July 18, 2015 there were 9,028 preventable deaths connected to the anti-vaccine movement. According to McCarthy there were 0 autism diagnoses linked to vaccines from June 3rd, 2007 to July 18, 2015. The anti-vaccine movement was linked directly to a British medical report in “The Lancet” in 1998 by a gastroenterologist Dr. Wakefield, who was later indicted with myriad criminal charges when many scientific and legal examinations disproved evidence.

Footnotes

1)RETRACTED: Wakefield A., et al., The Lancet 1998; 351:638-641 Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children
2)http://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2011/01/06/brian-deer-piltdown-medicine-the-missing-link-between-mmr-and-autism/ BMJ Opinion, Brian Deer: Piltdown medicine: The missing link between MMR and autism,

3)http://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2011/01/06/brian-deer-piltdown-medicine-the-missing-link-between-mmr-and-autism/ BMJ
Opinion, Brian Deer: Piltdown medicine: The missing link between MMR and autism,

4)Sprent, P., Statistics in Medical Research pg. 523

5)Sprent, P., Statistics in Medical Research pg. 523
6)Sprent, P., Statistics in Medical Research pg. 523
7)Sprent, P., Statistics in Medical Research pg. 524
8)http://www.jennymccarthybodycount.com/
9)http://www.jennymccarthybodycount.com/