Assessment of National Emigration Policy Adjustments as They Pertain to African and U.S. Foreign Relations

Assessment of National Emigration Policy Adjustments as They Pertain to African and U.S. Foreign Relations

 

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Interdisciplinary Studies in Leadership

Norwich University

May 29, 2017

Summary

The following report is an assessment of national and regional emigration policy as they pertain to African and U.S. foreign relations. The basis of this assessment is extracted from research conducted by Timothy J. Hatton of the University of Essex and Jeffrey G. Williamson of Harvard University titled, “Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa.”  The research was prepared for and presented at a conference on “Population Dynamics and The Macro Economy” at Harvard University, September 11-12th, 2000.

This report will analyze the findings of the Hatton & Williamson research.  Hatton & Williamson compared African emigration with the European exodus to the New World in the 19th century and looks at what forces are drivers in emigration both regionally and across borders.

Table of Contents

Summary                                                                                                                 i

Introduction                                                                                                            3

The Drivers of Emigration   Past and Present                                                   4

Wages and Economic Disparities                                                               5

War and Upheaval                                                                                         6

Demographic Booms (Figure 1)                                                                  6

The Impact of Emigration, Sending and Receiving—————————————–                                                                  6

Conclusions                                                                                                               7

Appendix A:——————————————————————————————–n/a

Appendix B:                                                                                                          n/a

References                                                                                                                  8

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Introduction

This report is divided into two main sections that look at the first the drivers of emigration as it pertains to African and U.S. foreign relations.  The three particular drivers examined will be wages and economic disparities, war and upheaval and demographic booms.  The research will be extracted from Hatton and Williamson’s proposal, “Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa.” The last section will look at population dynamics and ramifications of emigration in a fourth subheading titled “Impact of Emigration Sending and Receiving.” The conclusion will look at proposals such as Hatton and Williamson’s work towards a solution to the problem of net migration and its connected problems.

The Drivers of Emigration

Many have been known to migrate outside their borders as was detailed by Hatton & Williamson’s research.  Hatton and Williamson suggested several key forces that drive emigration regionally and across borders.  It was detailed by Hatton and Williamson that many choose to emigrant to OECD countries with higher wages which is the: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.  The OECD includes the following countries:

Figure 1. OECD Member Countries with Dates of Entry into Organization
AUSTRALIA 7 June 1971
AUSTRIA 29 September 1961
BELGIUM 13 September 1961
CANADA 10 April 1961
CHILE 7 May 2010
CZECH REPUBLIC 21 December 1995
DENMARK 30 May 1961
ESTONIA 9 December 2010
FINLAND 28 January 1969
FRANCE 7 August 1961
GERMANY 27 September 1961
GREECE 27 September 1961
HUNGARY 7 May 1996
 

 

ICELAND 5 June 1961
IRELAND 17 August 1961
ISRAEL 7 September 2010
ITALY 29 March 1962
JAPAN 28 April 1964
KOREA 12 December 1996
LATVIA 1 July 2016
LUXEMBOURG 7 December 1961
MEXICO 18 May 1994
NETHERLANDS 13 November 1961
NEW ZEALAND 29 May 1973
NORWAY 4 July 1961
POLAND 22 November 1996
PORTUGAL 4 August 1961
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 14 December 2000
SLOVENIA 21 July 2010
SPAIN 3 August 1961
SWEDEN 28 September 1961
SWITZERLAND 28 September 1961
TURKEY 2 August 1961
UNITED KINGDOM 2 May 1961
UNITED STATES 12 April 1961

 

OECD, however is not inclusive of the entire world and does not include any African countries whatsoever.  It is not clear, what is the criteria for membership into such a group as OECD and what one would hope for as an outcome?  It is claimed by Hatton and Williamson’s research that OECD countries were “go to” countries where Africans have chosen to emigrate in search of higher wages that appear to run tandem with advanced development.

It is not clear, if Africans were deliberately excluded from such groups as OECD, who initiated the OECD and what were their chief goals and concerns. The earliest date of membership is dated 12 April 1961 with the United States as the earliest member.  In January of 1961, John F. Kennedy assumed the Presidency of the

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United States until 1963 and likely initiated the OECD with Dwight D. Eisenhower as Vice President.

According to Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg.3), “legal restrictions into high wage OECD countries have certainly choked off potential migration.” What is suggested by Hatton and Williamson’s quote is that migration among Africans may have been deliberately contemplated and directed with legal and myriad restrictions.

According to the OECD:

“Convention No. 143 adopted by the 1975 ILO

Conference defines clandestine or illegal migration movements as those where migrants find themselves during their journey, on arrival or during their period of residence and employment [in] conditions contravening relevant international multilateral or bilateral instruments or agreements, or national laws or regulations.” (Moulier Boutang, Garson and Silberman, 1986). “This definition places the stress on the diverse aspects of irregularity: entry, residence in the host country and the undertaking of an occupation.”

What the OECD illustrated was that recipient countries were limited in terms of their acceptance of new entrants.  (OECD, 1999, pg.293) Regulations generally governed access to the labor markets.  “This policy orientation is now common to all countries of Europe, particularly the new countries of immigration in the South (i.e. Italy, Spain, Greece & Portugal) as well as  to North America, although US and Canada are still open to regular immigration.” (OECD, 199, pg. 293)

 

Wages and Economic Disparities

Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg.482) cited OECD wage increase of 40% by 2025 as having an impact on wage disparities between the African Continent and what are considered “developed” OECD nations.  Wages are said to be one of the chief drivers historically of migration that drove the Europeans to migrate in the 19th century.  If past predicts future, differences in economy will parallel migration as citizens go in search for a better quality of life. Many of those who emigrate also attract their friends and family to their host country and a “friends and family theory,” was supported by Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg. 483).  “A third of African arriving in the 1990’s classified as close relatives of U.S. citizens.”(Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 480)

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War & Upheaval

Several key indicators were cited by Hatton and Williamson (1998, pgs. 483-484) including achieving a refugee status, the HIV/AIDS epidemic, war and political upheaval. Examples such as how 100,000 refugees from Burundi returned to their home country in early 1994 as soon as fighting receded by way of the UNHCR Resettlement and Repatriation Act. Civil war in Zaire in 1996 when the Mobutu regime was overthrown 600,000 or 700,000 Rwandan’s became refugees. (Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 480)

There is a World Refugee Survey that details global population migration.  Hatton and Williamson suggested that during conflicts citizens become refugees and are pushed across borders to neighboring countries rural areas and live in settlements.  Refugees often return to their home country where they fair better assimilation, cultural commonalities and support network.

 

Demographic Booms

Commodity booms such as cocoa production in Ghana and mineral oil in Nigeria have caused large numbers to migrate. There are also rural-urban migrations that do not appear to be impacted by education. Those with more education seem to fare well in the rural-urban shifts. Youth aged 15-29 appear to be the biggest numbers migrating as  work environments get over-crowded, spurring the youth to go elsewhere to seek jobs. (Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 483)

 

The Impact of Emigration Sending and Receiving

OECD has formed stringent policy on curbing migration into their areas.  Hatton and Williamson cited a theory called “net out” where accepting emigrants or clandestine emigrants to one’s country may push others out even replace them in work.  There is a wide spread fear in receiving countries that emigrants will replace their citizens in work, often working harder and for lower wages. In some cases emigrants are described as roaming work forces.

 

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Even the slightest knowledge about wage increases elsewhere can ignite regional or cross border exchanges.  Hatton and Williamson did not go into detail about the long term effects of migration.  The OECD report detailed legal versus illegal immigration and at what point one is breaking the law.

 

Conclusion 

Other things still may impact African emigration.  The African’s who are successfully emigrating are likely students and were in pursuit of an education.  Still others may be beholden to their architecture as OCED also cited Moroccan’s as migrating into southern Europe.  Morocco has clay structured cave like housing that after new generations were born the architecture may no longer accommodate them.  Depending on one’s lense, these cultural curiosities, highly skilled, roaming work forces may be welcome or not welcome.  Emigrants in France were said to have taken over ~17% of the country.  No one seems to be compassionate when upheaval occurs, and no one appears to look for root causes that may remedy a problem or a suffering population within or outside their home country.

Population dynamics and the factors that shift net migration are diverse but perhaps just a handful of things makes one pick up and leave their home country in search very often for an all-around better quality of life-inclusive of health care, education, food supply, housing, government, lack of war, higher wage and a possibility to elevate themselves and their extended family via wiring monies home etc.  Perhaps conditions become unbearable or unlivable or too hostile or countries go into transition and world organizations do and do not respond effectively.

Additional information can be found by looking at Census Bureau statistics, reports from the United Nations, and The World Refugee Survey.

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References

Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa, Scandinavia Journal of Economics, 105(3), 465–486, 2003, 1998

List of OECD Member Countries, http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/list-oecd-member-countries.htm

Annual Report, Trends in International Migration:  Continuous Reporting System on Migration, 1999 Edition, https://www.oecd.org/migration/mig/2717683.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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What is significant about the 2005 Kansas Board of Education hearings regarding evolution and Intelligent Design?

By, Afua Osei-Bonsu

Question 1)

Why is Intelligent Design (ID) untestable?  ID has to do with how do new things originate?  According to the “Nature of Science,” By Christine V. McClelland,[1]“Creationism, Creation Science and Intelligent Design (ID) are spiritual concepts” that involve events of phenomena.” Science has long had conflict with spiritual concepts that are not necessarily grounded in the scientific method, are not testable and are based on the belief in supernatural events.[2]

 Question 2)

“What was the big deal about the 2005 Kansas State Board of Education rewording of science?”

The Kansas State Board of Education held hearings about how to define science and how to teach science with conflicting evidence including that of evolution, Darwinism and Intelligent Design. [3]

Teachers were in turmoil while religious and political groups promoted ideas about Creationism and Intelligent Design that aligned with their group’s ideas including those supporting supernatural events within their framing of origin that competed with popular biological and scientific ideas based on fact and perhaps things such as DNA Helix.[4]  What was to be taught in high schools and posted on websites like the popular website detailing “what is science?” to children:  (http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/babysfirstresearch)

The 2005 Kansas State Board of Education could actually unveil a long term “shroud of ignorance” that published and promoted to students mythical and supernatural ideas that misinformed and mislead students to base their education on something that was not testable or rooted in facts.

The Board of Education settled on teaching a “controversy method,” and “critical analysis of evolution.”  One goal of the outcome was to help students make “informed decisions.”[5]

Perhaps the case presented a juncture in which students may begin to question deeply existentialism, dogma and life origins.  It is unclear if schools will ever present real, tangible, evidence and fact based education.

[1] McClelland, Christine V, The Nature of Science and the Scientific Method

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_evolution_hearings

[3]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_evolution_hearings­­­

[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_evolution_hearings­­­

[5]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_evolution_hearings­­­

 

Casi Afuera (a vintage writing)

Casi Afuera

By Afua Osei-Bonsu (2009)

25 Barbosa Esquina Recreo, Catano, Puerto Rico

They Flew in quietly, through the window and circled gracefully around the light, luceros.  I turned out the light in my bedroom and turned on the light in my office and the luceros followed the light, dancing in circles around it.  I turned off the light in my office and turned on the light in my kitchen and the luceros followed the light. I turned out all the lights and the luceros disappeared through the window.

I lived in a 4 room house, mint green on the exterior.  In my bedroom I slept on an air mattress and there were two suitcases.  One suitcase was filled with my work, a portable office, my writing, sole prints, a book about New York, collages, books and journals.  I had with me to read Camus’s The Myth of Sisyphus, Oludummare, Jose Saramago’s El Elephante, Tolstoy’s The Kingdom of God is Within You, Oscar Wilde, Bessie Head, Ionesco’s The Rhinoceros, Indian Holidays, Essays on the Divine, Mahabarata by William Buck ,The Prisoner of Zenda, The Kama Sutra unexpurgated version, and a Spanish dictionary. In the other suitcase I had my dress collection, flower dresses, one turquoise with bright red flowers, another like a field of butterfly attracting flowers.  I packed my electric blue lace ups of soft leather from John Fluevog and my sock collection.

I listened to music on my clock radio.  I had no refrigerator or stove.  My diet consisted of fresh fruit and nuts, “The Light.”  I ate foods that absorbed a lot of light.  I ate with my hands with no need for silverware or plates or pots or pans.  Everything I ate was fresh and raw.  My food I kept in a small cooler, to prevent the sweet ants from eating it.

The houses and businesses are painted bright colors and they keep their windows open, casi afuera.  All along the edge of the island there are docks, rocks, boats and people fishing.  Umbrella tables filled with lovers line the playa.  Barcardi Rum makes its home in Catano.

The mosquitoes in my room flew in a “W” formation. The cockroaches ran in an “S” formation.  Since then I have found sharks swimming in circles “O” and birds flying in “V”.  I combined all my sacred letters to form VOWS.  I have another “O” from the birds which circled slowly over the playa like vultures looking for prey. I have an “S” from the snake.

The streets are tropical, lined with palm trees and coconuts can be found lying around.  I saw two rainbows in Puerto Rico.  While listening to karaoke, I ate chicken and platanos-mashed and fried plantains at El Faro.  El faro had an alligator; I’m not sure now if it was real or pretend. I met Ray at El Faro and Rana danced like a slippery frog hopping across the floor.

One day the sweet ants crawled into my purse sending me a message.  There were also four tarantulas.  The first tarantula the biggest and hairiest talked to me and left peacefully.  The second tarantula was young, quick and aggressive.  The second tarantula ran into a room and hid frightened behind a door.  That one was killed by Monchi with a sandal and swept out the front door.  The third tarantula tried to attack me and was killed with a broom swiftly.  The fourth tarantula was very small and quick; on it I put down a sacred book and sent it to the ancestors.  When I lifted the book nothing could be found.

I planned to redesign my house and paint it pink, carve my bed, desk and shelves.  I designed a pool area covered in a mosaic tile pattern.  My desk chair with tricycle wheels and feathers, “la serpiente enplumada.”  I wanted my furniture filled with water and sand. In my journals I wrote Billionario and thought about high frequency conversation with talking parrots.  I created the ideas around social companies and Profit Sharing Foundation, PSF. I thought of social companies called Air, Water and Bici. Bici was inspired by the cyclists I saw in New York from Puerto Rico with streamers and radios and all kinds of things attached to their bikes and also a man who rode around Catano with a bicycle that had a roof top. I researched the numbers from million to centillion.  I researched perennial flowers and came up with a formula for perennial league schools.  I assumed a perennial name, Babiana Nana Vielchenblau.  I decided all of my children will be named after perennial flowers. I painted sea houses, like Atlantis living below sea level in glass structures with sea life all around.  I finished editing my book New York 2005-2009.  I wrote Dos Caminos, Infinito, Blainwashed and Proverbs in Puerto Rico. Hasta Mourir, until death was written as a poem and later developed as a law firm and organization.

The tickets on La lancha boat between Catano and El Viejo San Juan across the ocean were dos por uno.  I took la lancha across the water to El Viejo San Juan and ate chicken curry, mint tea and baklava at a Turkish restaurant.  Another day, I ate Mofongo, soul food, and I also ate at a restaurant named after breast nipples, “Aereola.”  I went thrift shopping and found a beautiful vintage tan printed dress that I imagined myself wearing getting off a steamer with a trunk in tow, and a birdcage. The tan dress had spots, so I had sewn by a tailor doily patches -in a chaos theory fashion- over the random stains on the entire dress.  I bought from the same store a wooden origami necklace and a sleek, powerful red dress, I wore to call attorneys.

En El Viejo San Juan there was a café I frequented for Chinese milky black tea with maple syrup. Another café I went to for fresh squeezed orange juice and fruit salad.  Often if I ate heavy meals I was prone to pass out.  My body became accustomed to my diet of “The Light.” I ran around El Viejo San Juan with my little push cart of things.  I bought a fan from the hardware store to cool my room and keep the mosquitoes from biting me. Mosquitoes do not like cold or strong winds.  In Mexico, they hang bags of water to show the mosquito their enlarged reflection.  The mosquitoes become scared of themselves and fly away.

I desperately wanted to learn the sacred art of fishing.  I imagined the design of a fish restaurant where you spend the day fishing in Catano and show up to the restaurant and they prepare your fish for you. Besides fishing, people lined the plaza playing dominos.  At the gymnasio they were belly dancing-everything is like the ocean in Catano-people belly dance making themselves like waves, and they drink a lot filling themselves with waves.

There’s a congero family.  The father taught all his children to play congas and they play out together.  Cotilla run around on the street.  One Cotilla came walking in my front door.  Cotilla’s look for mosquitoes, while mosquitoes are looking for human blood.

En el Viejo San Juan, gigantic tourist ships arrive to the port.  All of a sudden tourists run about the place having their picture taken with parrots on their shoulder.  There was a butterfly store and in the plaza lots of pigeon. Someone walked by and put money in a sleeping homeless person’s hand.  There’s a castle way up on the hill with dungeons where people were tortured.  I found a large grass field perfect for picnics.  El Viejo San Juan was lined with rainbow colored houses and patterned mosaic tiles.  There is not a lot of grass. Streets are narrow.  Up a hill, you can find a little shop frequented by revolutionaries that serves 3 Medalla beers for $5.

People sing out frog sounds-Coqui- in Puerto Rico.  The coqui are sacred and they live in the rainforest.  The Indians in Puerto Rico were subject to colonial brutality. Many Indians were buried squatting in a birth position. In Puerto Rico- rich port- where did all the gems go?  There are caverns where colonial powers dug and removed the riches.  When I was there, there was still modern colonization, high taxes, stolen resources and a military base in Vieques.

En el Viejo San Juan I found an antique store that had a lot of interesting vintage maps of different countries.  I collected them and planned to travel across, up and down countries to measure them. I found a lot of inconsistencies in the sizes of countries on maps.  I called this project Mapas del Mundo.  I wanted to piece together the countries as they were before platetechtonics as one Gondwana.  Gondwana was my organization that gave out round world tickets so that people study and share their gifts. In that same antique store I bought a round shakira Masaai necklace and a woven hat.  Later I photographed myself in a mirror wearing the necklace, my dresses and my woven magenta reboso from Pano wrapped around my head like a queen.

I bathed in the shower with bottles of purified water, after my water supply had been contaminated. Outside, I sweat in the heat profusely, sometimes my hair and clothes drenched.  I sweat so much I went to the hospital to ask if I was okay.

I purchased a broken fan and horrible polyester sheets from the discount store.  I also bought three pillows.  I had a difficult time getting everything home and one pillow was dropped in the street that I never recovered.  I went to the dollar store where they sold bath mats, butterflies and fish.  I picked out one butterfly bath mat for my bathroom.

Music could be heard everywhere.  Houses were decorated with baby dolls, ornaments and miscellaneous paraphernalia.  I ate star fruit, oranges they called china and banana.  I bought from the Salvation Army, a popcorn air popper, but could not find popcorn to pop in it.  I eventually ate popcorn sitting next to Catano’s mayor at Lucha Libre in the gym.

I tried to open a bank account and no bank in El Viejo San Juan would open one for me.  In Puerto Rico they spoke fast and they cut their words-Tres was tre and gracias was gracia, boyfriends were “mi macho.”

Invisible President: Stop Birthing Babies Until There is Value to Man, a Prior Letter to an Editor

“Stop Birthing Babies

Until There is Value to Man”

 

Dear Editor,

In response to your article in Tuesday February 18ths, 2016  paper, “City’s Homeless Struggle to Cope with Cold,” this reader feels citizens should stop birthing babies until there is value to man.  Washtenaw County needs to place a greater value on its citizens above tents in the winter and beyond shelters as a solution.  I propose the government work on “valuation” of its citizens and provide as a birthright a “Basic Human Package” that includes a financial account and other items such as a dictionary at birth.

There is a need to put into place steps before this kind of dissolution when the people start to spill out into the streets.  The citizens should really start to realize that action is needed even for one person sleeping outdoors but in this county it has become the norm.  When the leaders do not call a state of emergency when their citizens do not have housing or even food sometimes it’s time to impeach.  One answer, which may be one of the only answers, is to value man and offer each citizen a constant prosperity.  Without a base income all citizens are in danger.  Illness is precarious, jobs are precarious, housing is precarious but a “Basic Human Account” should be a constant fixture that stabilizes mankind.

This citizen wishes to responsibly address the media to find the steps before and after.  What needs to be done to execute a base income, perhaps the first of man’s prosperous condition?  This citizen would like to chart from this moment to the moment a Basic Human Package could exist.  I called the Governor one time and emailed his website a day I had no food and was between jobs and got no response.  Washtenaw County and Michigan may be slim on emergency prevention and response, care of citizens and valuation is low.  I called the mayor of Ypsilanti to find out if he had any provision for citizens who may not have food and he gave me the number to our prior Congressman, who never responded.

It is as if Michigan has no real scaffolding of a Social System.  Even the Mayor might redirect your call and the Gov. may not pick up.  I have listened previously to Presidential campaigns and never heard Social System mentioned.  I think it was Eisenhower that feared the streets filling up with homeless and built housing projects and created Social Security and DHS. Is this really what the citizens of Michigan want as their Social System?

The current charitable organizations may be to arbitrarily assisting people and this system however beneficial may not be the real solution.  I plan to run for office maybe 20 years from now but I’ll start right now campaigning for a “Basic Human Package,” that I think would end homeless, increase intelligence, make us more beautiful, healthy and peaceful.

Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Letter to The Editor

 

 

Up to Snuff #2: Winter Book List Mostly French, Spanish, African Titles

Up to Snuff #2:  Book List Winter 2017, Mostly French titles, some Spanish and African

By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Figure Drawing for All its worth By Andrew Loomis

Nordic Cook book Chef Magnus Nillsson (Phaidon)

PHD dissertations

Edward Tufte

John Locke Essay “On Human Understanding”

Writing in the Disciplines (documents vintage writing styles)

Cassell’s Latin Dictionary

The Calligraphy Source Book or other books for penmanship

Bernard Levin, Enthusiasms Scrapbook of Styles

www.thebalance.com   (career notes)

The Seed Garden (The Art and Practice of Seed Saving) Michael Colby

The Manual of Seed Saving By Andrea Heistinger

Lettres de mon moulin  Alphonse Daudet (French)

Prevost  by, Manon Lescaut (French)

Balzac, Un debut dans la vie

Baudelaire, Le Fleurs du Mal

Beccaria, Des Delits et des Peines

Castiglione, Le Livre du Courtisan

Chateaubriand, Vie de Rance

Chretien de Troyes, Le Chevalier au Lion

Conrad, Nostromo

Dumas, Les Bords du Rhin

Fielding, Joseph Andrews

Flaubert, Memoires d’un Fou

Fromentin, Une annee dans le Sahel

Gautier, Le Capitaine Fracasse

Gogol, Tarass Boulba

Hume, Enquete sure le principes de la morale

Kafka, Dans la colonie penetentiare et autres nouvelles

Kant, Vers la Paix perpetuelle

Kleist, La Marquise D’O

Laxness La Clouche d’islande

Loti, Madame Chrysantheme

Machiavel, L’Art de la guerre

Marivaux, Les acteurs de bonne foi

Maupassant, Notre Coeur

Melville, Mardi

Morand, Hiver Caraibe

Moravia, Les Indifferents

Nerval, Aurelia et autres textes autobiographiques

Nietzche, Le Livre du Philosophie

Platon, Menon

Plaute, Theatre

Prevost, Histoire d’une Grecque Moderne

Quesnay, Physiocratie

Shakespeare, Henry V

Smith, La Richesse de Nations

Stael, De L’Allemagne

Stevenson, L’lle au Tresor

Strindberg, Tschandala

Terence, Theatre

Thackeray, Barry Lyndon

Michel Butor, La Modification

Marguerite Duras, Moderato Cantabile

Boris Vian, L’automne a Pekin

Alain Robbe-Grillet, La Maison de Rendez Vous

Roman Jakobson, Essais de linguistique genera, les fondations du language

Robert Linhart, L’etabli

Samuel  Beckett, Molloy

Claude Simon, La route des Flandres

Claude Simon, L’Herbe

Robert Pinget, L’inquisitoire

Annie Ernaux, Les armoires vides

C.G. Jung, Ma vie (Souvenirs, reves et pensees)

Anne Wiazemsky, Mon beau navire

Margaret Atwood, the Handmaids Tale

Phillip Roth, La contrevie

Rilke, Les Carnets de Malte Laurids  Briggs

Vladimir Nabokov, La meprise

Vladmir Nabokov, Autres Rivages

Bertrand Poirot-Delpech, Le Golfe de Gascogne

Cami, Drames de la vie courante

Georges Darien, Gottlieb Krumm (Made in England)

William Faulkner, Treize histoires

Pascal Quignard, Le escaliers de Chambord

Nathalie Sarraute, Tu ne t’aimes pas

Pietro Citati, Kafka

Jean d’Ormesson, Garcon de quoi ecrire

Michel Deon, Louis XIV par lui-meme

James Hadley Chase, Le fin mot de l’histoire

Zoe Oldenburg, Le process du reve

Plaute, Theatre complet I

Plaute, Theatre complet II

Mehdi Charef, Le harki de Meriem

Naguib Mahfouz

Nijinsky, Journal

Jorge Amado, Les terres du bout du monde

Jorge Amado, Suor

Hector Bianciotti, Seules les larmes seront competes

Sylvie Germain, Jours de colere

Pierre Magnan, L’amant du poivre d’ane

Jim Thompson, Un chouette petit lot

Pierre Bourgeade, L’empire de livres

Emile Zola, La Faute de l’abbe Mouret

Serge Gainsbourg, Mon proper role 1

Serge Gainsbourg, Mon proper role 2

Thomas Bernhard, Le neveu de Wittgenstein

Daniel Boulanger, Mes coquins

Albert Camus, La mort heureuse

Didier Daeninckx, Le facteur fatal

Jean Delay, Avant Memoire I

Romain Gary, Adieu Gary Cooper

Alfred de Vigny, Servitude et grandeur millitaires

Patrick Modiano, Voyage de noces

Pierre Moinot, Armes et bagages

J.-B Pontalis, Loin

John Steinbeck, La Coupe d’or

Gisele Halimi, La cause des femmes

Khalil Gibran, Le Prophete

Boileau-Narcejac, Le bonsai

Frederic H. Fajardie, Un homme en harmonie

Michel Mohrt, Le telesiege

Vladimir Nabokov, Pnine

Vladimir Nabokov, Le don

Carlos Onetti, Les bas-fonds du reve

Daniel Pennac, La petite marchande de prose

Guy Rachet, Le soleil de la perse

Georges Steiner, Anno Domini

Mario Vargas Llosa, L’homme qui parle

Marguerite Yourcenar, En pelerine et en etranger

Voltaire, Zadig et autres contes

Regis Debray, Les masques

Diane Johnson, Dashiell Hammett:  une vie

Yachar Kemal, Tourterelle, ma tourterelle

Julia Kristeva, Les Samourais

Pierre Magnan, Le mystere de Seraphin

Mouland Mammeri, La colline oubliee

Francis Ryck, Mourir avec moi

John Saul, L’ennemi de bien

Jean-Loup Trassard, Campagnes de Russie

Francis Walder, Saint Germain ou la negociation

Voltaire, Candide et autres contes

Robert Mallet, Region inhabitee

Oscar Wilde, Le Portrait de Dorian Gray

Rene Fregni, Les Chemins noirs

Patrick Besson, Les petits maux d’amour

Henri Bosco, Antonin

Paule Constant, White Spirit

Pierre Gamarra, Cantilene occitane

Herve Guibert, A l’ami qui ne m’a pas sauve la vie

Tony Hillerman, Le Peuple de l’ombre

Yukio Mishima, Le Temple de l’aube

Francois Salvaing, De purs desastres

Sempe, Par Avion

Jim Thompson, Eliminatoires

John Updike, Rabbit rattrape

Diderot, Jacque le fataliste

Kirishima, Kazuhiro  Memoires D’un Lutteur de sumo

Rosario Castellanos, Bella dama sin piedad y otros poemas

Carlos Fuentes, La muetre de Artemio Cruz

Juan Rulfo, El Llano en llamas

Miguel Leon-Portilla, Los antiguos Mexicanos

Octavio Paz, Libertad bajo palabra

Rodolfo Usigli, El gesticulador

Rosario Castellanos, Balun Canan

Fernando Benitez, La ruta de Hernan Cortes

Ramon Lopez Velarde, La Suave Patria

Edmund Valades, la muerte tiene permisso

Alfonso Caso, El pueblo de sol

Jose Vasconcelos, Ulises criolla

Jose Vasconcelos, Ulises criollo segunda parte

Jose Gorostiza, Muerte sin fin

Alfonso Reyes, Vision de Anahuac

Agustin Yanez, La tierra prodiga

Gutierra Tibon, El ombligo como centro erotico

Julio Torri, De fusilamientos

Charles Brasseur, Viaje por el istmo de Tehuantepec

Salvador Novo, Nuevo Amor

Salvador Toscano, Cuauhtemoc

Juan de la Cabada, Maria La Voz

Carlos Pellicer, Hora de Junio Practica de vuelo

Mariano Azuela, Mala Yerba Y Esa sange

Emilio Carballido, Rosalba Y los Llaveros

Popol Vuh

Vicente T. Mendoza, Lirica infantile de Mexico

Octavio Paz, El laberinto de la soledad

Efren Hernandez, La Paloma, el sotano y la torre

Carlos Fuentes, Las buenas conciencias

Laurette Sejourne, Pensamiento y religion en el Mexico antiguo

Sergio Galindo, El Bordo

Rosario Castellanos, Mujer que sabe latin

Rafael F. Munoz, Santa Anna

Ramon Rubrin, La bruma la vuelve azul

Mauricio Magdaleno, El ardiente verano

Xavier Villaurrutia, Nostalgia de la muerte

Francisco de la Maza, El guadalupanismo mexicano

El Libro de los Libros de Chilam Balam

J.L Martinez, Nezahualcoyotl

Rojas Gonzalez, La venganza de Carlos Mango

  1. Paula Kolonitz, Un viaje a Mexico en 1864

Sergio Magana, Los signos del Zodiaco

Luisa Josefina Hernandez, Los frutos caidos

Hector Mendoza, Las cosas simples

Ricardo Pozas, Juan Perez Jolote

Jose Pacheco, Fin de siglo

Fernando Benitez, El agua envenenada

Alfonso Reyes, La cena

Francisco L. Urquizo, Fui soldado de levita

Henry Miller, Tropic of Cancer

Henry Miller, Tropic of Capricorn

Sylvia Beach, Shakespeare and Company

Barnes, Djuna  The Book of Repulsive Women

Boyd, Ernest, Portraits:  Real and Imaginary

Boyle, Kay, Collection of 9 letters

Dorris, Michael, A Yellow Raft in Blue Water

Munson, Gorham B. Waldo Frank:  A Study

Stearns, Harold, Confessions of Harvard Man

Camus, Albert, La Chute, Folio, 1956

Sartre, Huis clos suivi de Les mouches

Aragon, Le paysan de Paris, Folio, 1926

Nina Berberova, L’accompagnatrice, Roman

Camara Laye, L’enfant noir

Jean Paul Satre, Classiques du Siecle

Francois Mauriac, Therese Desqueyroux

Francois Mauriac, Le Mystere Frontenac

Francois Mauriac, Le Noeud De Viperes

Francois Mauriac, La fin de la Nuit

Francois Mauriac, Genitrix

Francois Mauriac, Le Desert de L’Amour

Francois Mauriac, Le Baiser Au Lepreux

Jean Cocteau, Le Machine Infernale

Edmond Rostand, Cyrano De Bergerac

Alphonse Daudet, Lettres de on moulin

Baudelaire, Les Fleurs du mal et autres poems

Diderot, Jacques le fataliste

Manon Lescaut, Prevost

Michel Butor, La Modification

Annie Ernaux, Les armoires vides

Pablo Neruda, Antologia General

Ben okri the famished road

 

Maryse Conde I, tituba

 

Wole Soyinka

 

Ishmael Reed

 

Rebeka, Njau

 

Amos, Tutuola

 

Chikwenye Okonjo Ogunyemi

 

flying home Ralph Ellison

 

Catherine acholonu  ogbanje: a motif and a theme in the poetry of chrisotpher okigbo

 

Niyi Osundare  the poem as a mythic-linguistic event:  the study of soyinkas abiku

 

Nobel Prize speeches Soyinka and Morrison

 

Bessie Head maru, the collector of treasures

 

Ama Ata Aidoo  an angry letter in January

 

Jamaica Kincaid  lucy

 

Sindiwe Magona  to my childrens children

 

Lauretta Ngcobo  and they didn’t die

 

Tess Onwueme  go tell it to women

 

Susheila Nasta motherlands

 

Assata Ashakur  assata an autobiography

 

Nafissatou Diallo a Dakar childhood

 

Buchi Emecheta  a second class citizen

 

Camara laye the dark child the autobiography of an African boy

 

Wa thiong’o ngugi  detained a writers prison diary

 

Winnie Mandela part of my soul went with him

 

Ezekiel Mphahlele  down second avenue

 

Itabari Njeri every goodbye aint gone

 

Nkrumah, Kwame Ghana the autobiography of kwame Nkrumah

 

James Olney autobiography essay theoretical and critical

 

The beautiful ones are not born yet

 

Mariama Ba so long a letter

 

Rebeka Njau ripples in the pool

 

Flora Nwapa one is enough

 

Ntozake Shange sassafras, cypress and indigo

 

Rainbows Newton

 

Rabelais Gargantua and Pantegruel

 

Great Books Britainica

 

Tom Jones  Henry Fielding

 

Pride and Prejudice Jane Austen

 

Le Rouge and le Noir  Stendahl

 

Le Pere Goriot Balzac

 

Madame Bovary Flaubert

 

Moby Dick Herman Melville

 

Wuthuring Heights Emily Bronte

 

The Brothers Karamozov  Dostoyevsky

 

War and Peace Tolstoy

 

Chaos theory books

 

Herman Hesse

 

Langston Hughes

 

Back issues of NKA

 

Back issues of Revue Noire

 

Foreign Affairs

 

Bees

 

Hummingbirds

 

Butterflies

 

Impressionist Art

 

Special powers books I can find

 

Keats Irish folktales

 

 

Chinua Achebe-things Fall Apart, No Longer at Ease, Arrow of God, A Man of the People, Girls at War, Beware Soul Brother

Tewfik Al-Hakim fate of a cockroach

T.M. Aluko-One man, one Matchete, One man, One Wife, Kinsman and Foreman, Chief and Honouraboe Minister, His Worshipful Majesty

Elechi Amadi-The Concubine, The Great Ponds, Sunset in Biafra, The Slave

Jared Angira-Silent Voices

I.N.C. Aniebo-The anonymity of Sacrifice, the Journey Within

Ayi Kwei Armah-The Beautiful Ones are not Yet born, Fragments, Why are we so blessed, The healers

Bediako Asare -rebel

Kofi Awooner-this Earth, my Brother

Francis Bebey-Agatha Moudios Son, The Ashanti Doll

Mongo Beti-Mission to Kala, King Lazarus, the Poor

 

 

 

Invisible President #1: This Weeks State of The State Address From Governor Snyder

Invisible President:  This Weeks State of the State Address from Governor Snyder

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

In this week’s televised address “State of The State” by Governor Rick Snyder, the Governor highlighted that Michigan’s citizens were “coming home” for new opportunities and peaceful natural living after leaving for jobs and schools in other states. Michigan leads in the nation in terms of a sought after place to live. Michigan residents are coming home with fresh ideas and international experience, speaking multiple languages and with a taste for fine culinary and finery in general.  Local publications like “Hour Detroit,” offer a glossy version of the local restaurant and culinary “treasure trove” in Michigan.

Michigan continues to be a down to earth place to live-good, simple, living-medium sized cities not so small that you easily become “the talk of the town.” Michigan is “The humble state.”

The Detroit area out skirts have good schools for culinary including Schoolcraft College’s culinary program for those en route to becoming a master chef.  Michigan is a good place for independent international grocery and to open a restaurant.

Michigan shined as a new hub for manufacturing where even a coupon printing factory may generate millions of dollars. Manufacturing is attracting internationals to Michigan from countries like Albania, China and the Middle East.  University of Michigan has been compared to Harvard and was recently ranked in a number one position.

Michigan for multiple reasons such as manufacturing, good schools and The Great Lakes  warmly welcomes a large Asian population primarily Chinese to the state.   There are many loved  Indian, Korean and Vietnamese Restaurants and groceries.   Africans have flocked to eastern hubs and all over. International groceries have sprung up in every strip including Kasoa Market, an African grocery that sells things like mackerel in chili sauce, fufu, gari, plantain and guava juice. There is also Hua Xing Grocery, a large Chinese market with a whole aisle of noodles, tea break snacks, sake, teas, dumplings, Chinese vegetables and fresh fish.

It’s possible to enjoy  authentic and fresh Mexican cheeses and creams from “Dos Hermanos” Grocery on Michigan Avenue in Ypsilanti. In Michigan we are not talking about “borders” we are welcoming our international family.  Various citizens of Michigan are hoping to make this State “inhospitable to racism” and the contrary to promote a harmonious and loving melting pot.

Marijuana is  legal with an ID card in Michigan and has attracted many new businesses and eliminated a lot of crime. There are lots of places for outdoor camping and marinas.  The primary fruit crop that does well in Michigan is apples.  There are still lots of farms and rural areas and country living in general.

New business has been attracted to Michigan with the opening of breweries, Amazon in Livonia, The Google internet browser and search engine, the automotive industry and many others assuming and unassuming such as myriad cider mills, the non-profit sector or creative industry. Michigan enjoys a nice healthy mix that is part industrial and part natural, which can be an ideal.

Governor Snyder honored the military and spoke of “sharp shooters” and honored promising youth activism including from East Lansing High School who gave him “elevator pitches” in a recent meeting.

During his term Governor Snyder created several “commissions” to look at “best practices” internationally that may benefit Michigan’s infrastructure.  Very low unemployment and problems such as the Flint water crisis were well managed and cities like Flint are enjoying “resilience” as was written by the Community Foundation of Greater Flint.

The Governor said “up to third grade one is learning to read” then after third grade (they are utilizing reading) and “reading to learn.” Snyder is looking at issues involved with children’s education.

The Governor is working on a long term goal around community building hoping that like a contagion successful communities will support and model for each other.

A few days after the “State of the State” some Michigan women headed to Washington D.C. for a Woman’s March on Washington including owner of “All Sewn Up Sewing School,” Anne Reinstein. Even feminist and woman’s issues are being discussed in many homes and businesses. Feminist theory classes have heated up at Eastern Michigan University in the philosophy department where Ombudsman’s were contacted and grade grievances were filed.

Detroit continues to flex where new charismatic leaders such as L. Brooks Patterson are spotlighting Oakland County’s achievements in magazines.  Some think bankruptcy may have been a “smoke screen” planted to shield Detroit from rising internationalism and growing population counts in hip neighborhoods like Hamtramck.

Michigan’s educational institutions are leading in terms of preparing technological leaders at schools like University of Michigan Dearborn with good medical schools and schools of engineering or Lawrence Tech that has good architectural engineering programs and promotes fields like “computational biology” or Data Mining entered through its mathematics and computer science program door.   Michigan’s manufacturing has always attracted good engineering programs at Michigan State University, University of Michigan and Lawrence Tech, and still others at Michigan Technological University in the upper peninsula-in a natural reserved area-where the Governor is based.

 

 

 

 

Fast Moving Cities and Tempo in The Future

Fast Moving Cities and Tempo in the Future

A poem I once wrote stated:  “Tell everyone to be assertive, New York driver.”

It’s a mystery and perhaps a natural phenomenon how cities grow up and eventually

as if in conspiracy people congregate along certain lines.  Is there one specific thing that makes New York drivers, drive erratic and fast?  One could speculate all kinds of possible scenarios and engage in research to ascertain the real origins of “fast moving traffic.”  For example, perhaps it is a matter of over population of the city or the speed of the traffic lights changing that crests the city and adrenalizes the traffic system? Are the traffic lights faster in the day and slower in the night? Does the city that never sleeps actually sleep?  One theory may be that the speed of traffic lights directly impacts the population and becomes the cities tempo.

The traffic system could in fact be connected to super computers and an “alternative idea” for the super metropolis? Perhaps it is the stop –and- go taxis and diversionary systems that disrupts traffic and creates its flow?  It could possibly be the make and model of vehicles on the road, such as limousines or taxis or buses or a culture of “temporary transport”? It could even be related to the types of businesses that exist in New York and the urban planning.  It could even be a lack of places to park or stop or rest your vehicle that keeps vehicles moving.

What overarching ideas exist below this idea of traffic speed that impacted the citizens of New York such as in the example of an aggressive reputation?  When you sit down to create a “New Yorker,” what were the ingredients that were placed into the stew?  Does in fact traffic speed as in music create a “city tempo” and perhaps a personality trait to those it impacts? Do New York City’s traffic lights make you walk a certain way and talk a certain way? How has the operation of New York City’s grid impacted individuals? Does fast mean not nice? Does aggressive mean not kind?

Recently, I was listening to relaxation music and felt that my body aligned significantly with the tempo of the music and relaxation music was in fact relaxing and stress relieving.  It’s really a phenomenon the results of the “fast moving cities,” which may be New York and Berlin?  Are there others?  One possible research would be to measure and monitor the speeds of all of the traffic lights around the world.

Someone somewhere sat down and desired a fast moving city, perhaps a harder, faster worker?

What could possibly be derived from the results of this research are perhaps “tempo driven” products such as what pianist Sarah Hamilton uses “The Beat Box,” to maintain tempo while playing piano.

People could wish to regulate personal tempos in their home or work place.  It’s possible we could want something more from music to regulate tempos with united tempos that are crested in various songs.  The future business owner may want to set the tone a little deeper.  We may want our car or entire house set to a tempo or maybe just ourselves in our home.

It’s possible to regulate tempo with things like the heart, percussion, light, music and exercise-what then is tempo in relation to the body?  What are all the ways one can achieve or change tempo? What can be done with tempo?  Can I create a context for which I may achieve something specific?  Can I increase my tempo and lose weight for example? Will children study harder, will they be smarter with a faster tempo or a specific tempo?

I was once told I had the tempo of the falling snow from growing up in Michigan.

Envision a technology store with unique tempo driven product ranges, colors, software,

and electronics.  I heard through the grapevine that China may have had the best city tempo and had a good result from it.

Tempo could impact the physical body, it could impact intelligence, it could impact personality.

Music could actually have a gauge, or coded tempo measurement and people could select it based on their choice tempo.  Musicians could be hired to make precise tempo music for businesses.

 

 

Invisible President: An Analysis of Unpaid Labor in Washtenaw County and Unpaid Labor in General

An Analysis of Unpaid Labor in Washtenaw County and Unpaid Labor in General

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

A student wishing to build their resume with volunteer work or humanitarian service may elect as an option, an unpaid position.  Unpaid positions can be extremely valuable for professional development and even status greater than an employee.  What can ultimately happen to a student or anyone signing on to an unpaid position is the assignment to themselves of a zero wage which may elicit disrespect from peers or other paid workers. There is a case where a volunteer at a theater working alongside paid workers was called a “slave,” which is true of a theater in Ann Arbor. In this case the volunteers felt prestige for service work and the employees felt superiority as wage earners.

Some businesses may have the majority of their work force unpaid and be completely reliant on unpaid labor. Even when working unpaid, “thank you’s” may be hard to come by.  People will in fact look down on you when you are working without a wage.  Will you even get a reference from an unpaid position?  Will they even remember your name? Should there be a record of your employment and a reference required? Should references always be required for every position?

In some instances disrespect extends to consultants and employees who use “two voices” for management and unpaid workers. 

Many managers show a “lack of interest in paying” their employees. Payment for some managers is not their priority and barely on their radar.  A paid worker may represent a threat and upset the hierarchy?  The lower you are, the higher they feel, the less you receive, the more sushi for them.

Unpaid labor also becomes cumbersome in discussions of salary history with potential employers who may view them as a low-pay or even an unpaid equivalent.  Unpaid labor is still further cumbersome in the presence of rampant racism and historical slavery.  There is no requirement that an internship, for example be unpaid, the good ones tend to pay.

How do positions come to be unpaid? Unpaid positions may represent a kind of theft.

Just because they didn’t pay, doesn’t mean they still don’t owe. There are several options including:  the department of labor, invoicing, collections agencies or starting your own collections agency, put it on their credit report and give them a rating, harassing phone calls, threatening letters, a lawyer, a blog, government, report to news/press, racism registries with state and local government or your own, setting up your own law firm, arbitration and binding contracts, speaking in legal terms and citing infractions, public letters, out of business strategies, replacing business in your community, researching legal cases on Linux and the internet, keeping a journal, or calling the police to report theft, filing a police report or opening an “Office of Pain and Suffering” that will replace your money.

A brief sampling of Washtenaw County produced a variety of unpaid positions such as internships, docents, board members, student groups, volunteer work, student jobs, independent fundraising, starting your own business, advocacy work, consulting,  film festivals, art festivals, fashion studios, start-ups, non-profits, family businesses, searches on student employment websites and we may also include minimum wage labor as labor that is barely paid or not equivalent.

What generally happens in some cases is one person has paid themself and neglected to pay the rest of the staff, sometimes pursuing interns or volunteers.  Other times in the cases of university faculty and staff, all receive departmental budgets and often neglect to spread their budget across all employees. Unpaid labor presents a “larger piece of the pie” for someone else and perhaps overall savings or profit for the department or company.

Very often it is a failure of management to identify proper funding channels or to value others as they do themselves.  The management may reach as high as the American government that may not have considered the trials of non-profits who fill the variety of holes in the American social system when planning their budgets.  Very seldom will the national or local governments be inclusive of local businesses that serve their communities in their budgets and should.

The downfall of a community with an abundance of unpaid labor is that it indicates something about that community.  It may present evidence of poor leadership, inadequate business skills, racism, and misappropriation of funds and may even be a huge crack in the wall.  Internships may save a company money and may appear to be a win-win situation but other factors may show that accepting a low wage for your work may create devaluation of mankind and in the workplace, presenting long term obstacles.

Some people are too self-centered to be good managers and employees may find that their portion of the payroll exists in managements personal accounts.  Ego, sexism, racism, ignorance may perpetuate a belief in someone’s mind that he/she has a value that others do not hold or a need that others are not worthy.

What should be brought into policy and law is an equivalent wage.  For example it may be necessary if you have been offered a job to tally the various tasks to see if your hourly wage is adequate to cover the amount of responsibility.  Perhaps America has devalued its people and disrupted work by electing a minimum wage, not to fall below as opposed to an equivalent wage to match.  It can be terrifying to receive a minimum wage that is not in keeping with the economy.  After a while, the people start to spill out into the street, when the economies go long term unbalanced.

Possible solutions government needs to take could be a thorough analysis of businesses under their umbrella to see which of those need government support or to possibly pay all wages from the government to stabilize business and society. The Federal Reserve doesn’t represent a small budget but an arbitrary budget that should also match the budgetary needs of  the country-not what is often said by officials that there is not enough in the budget or the budget is running out-a fallacy.

It may be necessary to institute an “Office of Fee Inquiry” that sets wages, prices, rents etc. to create a unilateral approach to employment etc. and balance the economy.  Very often subtle changes, even new landlords upset the local economy and may create social problems.  Long term neglect of employees also creates social problems.  People make economic decisions all the time unmonitored and uncaring of their impact on a community. Where in that chain can be inserted supervision? Someone may move to Ann Arbor from New York, get into rentals and gauge an aggregating increase in rents and destroy the town.

How does money get into the proper hands, how do budgets get properly allocated, how do we start to make this area inhospitable to racism? At universities students can often be added to payroll or placed into a budget somewhere.  The necessary caring doesn’t exist for enough management to show concern for their constituencies lives. Perhaps a gravitation away from hierarchal business strategies can be replaced with social models.  There are many things that could be solutions to the problems created by unpaid labor.

It is strange, it is as if shoes exist for an  unpaid job.  What was it like for example, to work in the south after slavery? Employers who do not pay adequately become stigmatized as well as position histories.

Watch out, for example for poorly planned positions and vacuous position titles which may indicate a workplace where management is ill equipped and uncaring.  Positions such as “intern” or “office assistant,” may represent jobs bearing poor designation  or “unspecified labor” and offered for a lower wage.  Positions should have titles, be well crafted, and with equivalent wage.

We as a people need to reexamine our current business models and address schools of business to plan new strategies. Hierarchal business models are obsolete. We must be entering a new era, where it’s time for caring and time for sharing of wealth.

 

 

Feminist Theory Class Essay #2

In Susan Moller Okin’s essay, “Toward a Humanist Justice,” she makes a case for gendered division of labor as a vehicle for oppression of women. In this essay, I wish to agree with Okin that gendered division of labor has a basis in the suffering that many women experience, however distinct male and female species require appropriate roles. I wish to address the vulnerability of women and arrive at principles of justice to map out a clear platform. Justice for women may not be achieved with a purely egalitarian direction.

Okin highlighted several issues in regards to appropriate roles for men and women including: the disappearance of social differentiation, division of labor resulting in injustice, paid and unpaid work, primary parental roles and sex role expectations. All of the above issues are significant but may be remedied with social and cultural change.

Alternatives that may be catalyst for the alleviation of women’s oppression are: self-supporting income, land allocation, rights and responsibilities, presence of children in the workplace, an independent place for children, education, flexible work hours and signing on and off and various protections.

Toward a Humanist Justice in theory sounds attractive, with common mantras like “equal work, for equal pay,” but may not be the solution. The solution may lay deep in culture and government. The solution may be birthright income or even the independence of children who can be free to have their own income and parts of town.

Okin argues for a shared parental responsibility which is common sense. Okin argues to protect the vulnerable and to increase justice for women. A humanist platform is meaningful and may have deeper resonance when juxtaposed with terms such as “humanitarianism.” Okin may have been looking for neutralization of gender roles, however a humanist root aligned with “humanitarianism” may include public service or community or “social” as a paradigm.

References

Cudd, Ann E. & Andresen, Robin O., Feminist Theory:  A Philosophical Anthology, Blackwell Publishing, 2005

Eastern Michigan University, Philosophy Department, Feminist Theory with Professor Higgins, spring term 2015

Michigan’s Google Expansion and a General Google Update

Michigan’s Google Campus Expansion
Ann Arbor Median Income Predicted to Rise
By Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu
Staff Writer
This year in the 3rd or fourth quarter, according to Alex McDougal of the Ann Arbor News, expect to see a new Google campus at 2300 Traverwood Drive near University of Michigan’s North campus in Traverwood Business Park, just north of Plymouth Road in Ann Arbor. The new Google campus could impact Michigan’s 5.6% unemployment rate and Ann Arbor’s average median income of $25.58 or the median salary of $53,200 according to the Michigan Bureau of Labor Statistics.
An influx of high level technology jobs, such as the 400+ positions that formerly related to the “Adwords Advertising Program” and filled four floors in 137,000 square- foot of the Mckinley Towne Center in Downtown Ann Arbor will relocate to the campus and occupy two buildings, the first building built in 2000 and another under construction.
Veronica Grecu reported at Commercial Property Executive that “Google will break ground on an adjacent 73,000 square foot office space to be completed by the end of 2016 when the first employees start moving in.”
Currently, The Michigan Bureau of Labor Statistics lists number of jobs at 4,255,000 with 3,000 new jobs since last month and a high of 99,000 new jobs last year. Google was also reported by Crain’s Detroit to be opening new 96,000 square foot offices in Farmington Hills.
Google’s website advertised under a “Still a Student” tab scholarships, internships and positions that span the globe including an advertisement for a Software Developer Intern or Software Engineer Intern requiring a PHD. Interns were listed on the Google Website as having to “conceive & develop software applications to extend and improve on Google’s product offering.” Google offers internships to MBA students.
The Google workforce is divided into 3 key area: 1) Build cool stuff (Engineering and Design, Operations and Support, Product Management, Developer Relations and Technical Solutions), 2) Sell Cool Stuff (Sales and Account Management, Product and Customer Support, Partnerships and Sales Operations) and 3) Do Cool Stuff (Administrative and Business Strategy, Finance, Legal and Government Relations, Marketing & Communications, People Operations, Real Estate and Workplace Services, Social Impact).
A world class giant technology company, Google, has offices in North America, Latin America, Europe, Middle East & Africa, and Asia Pacific. Online Google states that, “we hail from all walks of life and speak dozens of languages, reflecting the global audience that we serve.”
Employee’s may be inspired by the jungle inspired lobby in Sydney Australia, the Mother’s Room in Cambridge, Massachusetts, the New Year’s Celebrations in Beijing China, the Pub Style Lounge in Dublin Ireland or Tatami Meeting Room in Tokyo, Japan. The company offers a variety of benefits including on site physicians and comprehensive health care, travel insurance and emergency insurance even for personal vacations, new parents get time off and extra pay to welcome newborns, Tuition Reimbursement and legal advice at no cost or at a generous group discount.
Google is characterized by, “our belief in the endless possibilities of the internet.” They provide a “variety of tools to help businesses of all kinds succeed on and off the web.”