Nkotombmre, A Basic “Wield” of Ghanaian and West African Culinary- Greens, Fish and Tomato

 

Nkotombmre
A Basic Wield of Ghanaian and West African Culinary: Greens, Fish and Tomato
By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

A basic “wield” of West African cooking may have the same simple ingredients in many different combinations: it may include greens, peanut sauce, tomato and chicken, or greens, fish and tomato, or peanut stew with mushroom and chicken, or black eyed peas, fish, and tomato.

Most are stewed with and cooked in palm oil or coconut oil or vegetable oil with African Red Pepper Chili (Nina International Brand) and include garlic and ginger, onion and green pepper and sometimes magi cubes or blended up and liquefied onions, or blended up garlic, ginger and tomato with plantain dipped inside to make “Kelewele” or sometimes coconut milk, broth, or okra, or fried okra, or add spoonful’s of peanut butter or as a side blended up eggplant or hummus-these are some basic West African (and around) or Ghanaian cooking.  You can get experimental with interesting chili peppers or a variety of mushrooms in stews or add plantains to stew to make it a little fancier or haughty.  Some cooks will thicken a stew with Tahina or coconut milk or the liquefied onions or broths.

A basic idea is to blend and liquefy vegetables etc., succulence, and dipping.  Also it’s flavored oils, tender meats and a little heat. Other common things are fresh fruit, fruit salads, fresh bread, kebabs and satays.  Also common are rice dishes or rice and vegetables like “Joloff Rice” that includes mixed vegetables or dill rice or little savory dishes or cabbage dishes.

Alot of Africans like tender and spicy jerk chicken or coconut shrimp or meat pies or fried chicken or chicken wings (even marmalade wings or teriyaki wings)or  curries or Ethiopian Berbere Stews or even Chinese Stir Fry’s or Spaghetti Bakes. Some African’s will go to a fish market or meat market and just want “a nice piece of meat” and some rice, plantain and salad etc.  Some even like gravy’s and sauces.  One African may like salads with boiled egg, sausage, tomato topped with Thousand Island Dressing.  Some Africans like other cultural dishes that include a peanut taste like Vietnamese dishes with crushed peanuts or Thai, Pad Thai noodles in peanut sauce.  Africans may also like “Bright Chicken,” which is a lemon based pan fried chicken and has marvelous flavor.  Some may also like grilling or popping a piece of fish into foils with herbs and lemon into the oven wrapped up in a packet. Some African cooking has alot of French or Francophone influences from common shared languages and cultural taste buds.  Dishes like Coq au vin or an aperitif or a cheese and fruit platter dessert may be popular.

Many meats can be tenderized and sautéed in coconut oil and eaten with rice and a salad or a vegetable or a pot of pickled greens. Many dishes can be topped with fried plantain and or a boiled egg on top or a boiled egg in bowls of stew to be sexy or macho. Most also include plantain fried, baked or boiled, yellow or green (green and unripe is often boiled) or cocoyam boiled, or yam tubers skinned and boiled.

Most also include some kind of doughy manioc like Fu Fu (pounded yam, often sold in flours), Gari (sometimes a Cream of Wheat or Farina stiffened with more of itself and less water), Kenkey or corn meal “Husky” (like Mexican masa cooked)(Kenkey without the Kenk or fermentation), rice or rice balls, or yam or plantain-as the starch accompaniment.

The other staple are stews or soups that go with starches. Stews are “cut meat” stews where large chunks or cubes are cut by a butcher on a band saw of either fish, chicken, goat or beef or lamb. There is an art to the cutting of the meat and the succulence of the stew later. Sometimes you can cut chicken with a cleaver. Try Kasoa Market in Ann Arbor, Michigan for good “cut meats,” for stews.

Kasoa Market also carries the staples of Titus Sardines which are good with a stiffened Cream of Wheat, Sriracha Sauce, chopped onions and diced tomatoes and sometimes also cooked corned beef-this is simply called “Gari.” Gari is served on a plate or platter all together in order of eating operations. Most dishes are eaten with the right hand, sometimes dipping into each item.  Ghanaian’s have that dipping quality je ne sais quoi, like in the game with seeds and bowls “Oware,” almost like the letter “U.” Husky can be eaten the same way as Gari.  The leftover corned beef can be mixed with cooked rice, onions and green pepper for another delicious dish.

Nkotombmre-is cooked down and blended chopped spinach or another green, broken up pieces of fish (mostly canned, marinated or pickled fish) Geisha Brand Mackerel in Chili Sauce or Titus Sardines and fresh or stewed tomatoes with African chili pepper and salt, cooked in palm oil. Let it all break down until it is one interesting blended green sauce that you eat over something or dip into with an accompaniment, even crackers or warmed or toasted bread.  Nkotombmre is really tasty with fried plantain logs or boiled green plantains for example.   It looks almost like Chimichurri which may have originated in Ethiopia and is around the world? It can be found in Mexico and Argentina via the Italians in Ethiopia that later immigrated to Argentina and it became their food, then from the Argentine’s presumably to Mexico etc. Chimichurri is ladled over meats, mostly beef, and is parsley, olive oil, red wine vinegar, cilantro, garlic, red pepper, cumin and salt all blended into a green sauce.

Many dishes could just be eaten with crackers like the Mackerel in Chili Sauce or the Nkotombmre, or Chimichurri can be ladled over meats and things.  Some dishes you can take a bowl of rice turn it upside down in another larger bowl and pour soup over then lift off bowl to leave a round mound or an island with stew around or have a Fu Fu island in stew bowl or just a boiled egg and meats in stew.  You can dress a stew in many ways.

Good drinks to have are ones like: Fanta, Bitter Lemon, Pampelmousse Grapefruit Drink, Palm Wine, Ting, Star Beer or African Guinness. With all the chili you may just want water!!! Fire! Fire! Fire!  West African’s also typically drink lemon grass tea.  They use fresh stalks of lemon grass and cut off pieces and steep them in hot water for a delicious and memorable tea.  Some Africans really enjoy mulled herb teas or Black tea’s or Gunpowder Green Tea. There are also excellent South African wines like Chamonix or Simeon and many others.  African’s also enjoy Peak Milk with Nescafe Coffee and even cakes iced with Nescafe icing.  You can also just mix condensed milks as often do the Thai with coffee, a few tablespoons, for a delicious hot drink.

Ghanaian’s love “tea and biscuits” and are somewhat influenced heavily by the English. Other dishes common in England like baked beans on toast one may find also in Ghana. A Ghanaian father in America may feed to his young children, baked beans with hotdogs cut up in them-“beans and franks.”  A plate of Gari may be shared by a father and his children as one plate.  A dessert for a child may be simply baked plantains with peanut butter.

Africa was designated a more rural locale due to the presence of large game animals and game reserves. Perhaps it was more savior faire that desired land and rural, mixed with animals and cities. This represents a more simple “rural African diet.”  As Africa advances and becomes more cosmopolitan, so will Africa’s culinary augment and grow with all the old favorites.

Then pop in some music like: Franco, or Thomas Mapfumo, or Ali Farka Toure or Amadou and Mariam, Orchestra Baobab, Miriam Makeba (Love Tastes Like Strawberries), Salif Keita, Baaba Maal, Babatunde, Fela Kuti, Buika, Caetano Veloso, Cesaria Evora, Dar es Salaam Jazz Band, Femi Kuti, Ibrahim Ferrer, Peru Negro, Sam Mangwana, Youssou N’Dour, Angleique Kidjo, Zap Mama, Soukous.

 

 

Assessment of National Emigration Policy Adjustments as They Pertain to African and U.S. Foreign Relations

Assessment of National Emigration Policy Adjustments as They Pertain to African and U.S. Foreign Relations

 

By, Afua Serwah Osei-Bonsu

Interdisciplinary Studies in Leadership

Norwich University

May 29, 2017

Summary

The following report is an assessment of national and regional emigration policy as they pertain to African and U.S. foreign relations. The basis of this assessment is extracted from research conducted by Timothy J. Hatton of the University of Essex and Jeffrey G. Williamson of Harvard University titled, “Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa.”  The research was prepared for and presented at a conference on “Population Dynamics and The Macro Economy” at Harvard University, September 11-12th, 2000.

This report will analyze the findings of the Hatton & Williamson research.  Hatton & Williamson compared African emigration with the European exodus to the New World in the 19th century and looks at what forces are drivers in emigration both regionally and across borders.

Table of Contents

Summary                                                                                                                 i

Introduction                                                                                                            3

The Drivers of Emigration   Past and Present                                                   4

Wages and Economic Disparities                                                               5

War and Upheaval                                                                                         6

Demographic Booms (Figure 1)                                                                  6

The Impact of Emigration, Sending and Receiving—————————————–                                                                  6

Conclusions                                                                                                               7

Appendix A:——————————————————————————————–n/a

Appendix B:                                                                                                          n/a

References                                                                                                                  8

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Introduction

This report is divided into two main sections that look at the first the drivers of emigration as it pertains to African and U.S. foreign relations.  The three particular drivers examined will be wages and economic disparities, war and upheaval and demographic booms.  The research will be extracted from Hatton and Williamson’s proposal, “Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa.” The last section will look at population dynamics and ramifications of emigration in a fourth subheading titled “Impact of Emigration Sending and Receiving.” The conclusion will look at proposals such as Hatton and Williamson’s work towards a solution to the problem of net migration and its connected problems.

The Drivers of Emigration

Many have been known to migrate outside their borders as was detailed by Hatton & Williamson’s research.  Hatton and Williamson suggested several key forces that drive emigration regionally and across borders.  It was detailed by Hatton and Williamson that many choose to emigrant to OECD countries with higher wages which is the: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.  The OECD includes the following countries:

Figure 1. OECD Member Countries with Dates of Entry into Organization
AUSTRALIA 7 June 1971
AUSTRIA 29 September 1961
BELGIUM 13 September 1961
CANADA 10 April 1961
CHILE 7 May 2010
CZECH REPUBLIC 21 December 1995
DENMARK 30 May 1961
ESTONIA 9 December 2010
FINLAND 28 January 1969
FRANCE 7 August 1961
GERMANY 27 September 1961
GREECE 27 September 1961
HUNGARY 7 May 1996
 

 

ICELAND 5 June 1961
IRELAND 17 August 1961
ISRAEL 7 September 2010
ITALY 29 March 1962
JAPAN 28 April 1964
KOREA 12 December 1996
LATVIA 1 July 2016
LUXEMBOURG 7 December 1961
MEXICO 18 May 1994
NETHERLANDS 13 November 1961
NEW ZEALAND 29 May 1973
NORWAY 4 July 1961
POLAND 22 November 1996
PORTUGAL 4 August 1961
SLOVAK REPUBLIC 14 December 2000
SLOVENIA 21 July 2010
SPAIN 3 August 1961
SWEDEN 28 September 1961
SWITZERLAND 28 September 1961
TURKEY 2 August 1961
UNITED KINGDOM 2 May 1961
UNITED STATES 12 April 1961

 

OECD, however is not inclusive of the entire world and does not include any African countries whatsoever.  It is not clear, what is the criteria for membership into such a group as OECD and what one would hope for as an outcome?  It is claimed by Hatton and Williamson’s research that OECD countries were “go to” countries where Africans have chosen to emigrate in search of higher wages that appear to run tandem with advanced development.

It is not clear, if Africans were deliberately excluded from such groups as OECD, who initiated the OECD and what were their chief goals and concerns. The earliest date of membership is dated 12 April 1961 with the United States as the earliest member.  In January of 1961, John F. Kennedy assumed the Presidency of the

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United States until 1963 and likely initiated the OECD with Dwight D. Eisenhower as Vice President.

According to Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg.3), “legal restrictions into high wage OECD countries have certainly choked off potential migration.” What is suggested by Hatton and Williamson’s quote is that migration among Africans may have been deliberately contemplated and directed with legal and myriad restrictions.

According to the OECD:

“Convention No. 143 adopted by the 1975 ILO

Conference defines clandestine or illegal migration movements as those where migrants find themselves during their journey, on arrival or during their period of residence and employment [in] conditions contravening relevant international multilateral or bilateral instruments or agreements, or national laws or regulations.” (Moulier Boutang, Garson and Silberman, 1986). “This definition places the stress on the diverse aspects of irregularity: entry, residence in the host country and the undertaking of an occupation.”

What the OECD illustrated was that recipient countries were limited in terms of their acceptance of new entrants.  (OECD, 1999, pg.293) Regulations generally governed access to the labor markets.  “This policy orientation is now common to all countries of Europe, particularly the new countries of immigration in the South (i.e. Italy, Spain, Greece & Portugal) as well as  to North America, although US and Canada are still open to regular immigration.” (OECD, 199, pg. 293)

 

Wages and Economic Disparities

Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg.482) cited OECD wage increase of 40% by 2025 as having an impact on wage disparities between the African Continent and what are considered “developed” OECD nations.  Wages are said to be one of the chief drivers historically of migration that drove the Europeans to migrate in the 19th century.  If past predicts future, differences in economy will parallel migration as citizens go in search for a better quality of life. Many of those who emigrate also attract their friends and family to their host country and a “friends and family theory,” was supported by Hatton and Williamson (1998, pg. 483).  “A third of African arriving in the 1990’s classified as close relatives of U.S. citizens.”(Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 480)

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War & Upheaval

Several key indicators were cited by Hatton and Williamson (1998, pgs. 483-484) including achieving a refugee status, the HIV/AIDS epidemic, war and political upheaval. Examples such as how 100,000 refugees from Burundi returned to their home country in early 1994 as soon as fighting receded by way of the UNHCR Resettlement and Repatriation Act. Civil war in Zaire in 1996 when the Mobutu regime was overthrown 600,000 or 700,000 Rwandan’s became refugees. (Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 480)

There is a World Refugee Survey that details global population migration.  Hatton and Williamson suggested that during conflicts citizens become refugees and are pushed across borders to neighboring countries rural areas and live in settlements.  Refugees often return to their home country where they fair better assimilation, cultural commonalities and support network.

 

Demographic Booms

Commodity booms such as cocoa production in Ghana and mineral oil in Nigeria have caused large numbers to migrate. There are also rural-urban migrations that do not appear to be impacted by education. Those with more education seem to fare well in the rural-urban shifts. Youth aged 15-29 appear to be the biggest numbers migrating as  work environments get over-crowded, spurring the youth to go elsewhere to seek jobs. (Hatton & Williamson, 1998, pg. 483)

 

The Impact of Emigration Sending and Receiving

OECD has formed stringent policy on curbing migration into their areas.  Hatton and Williamson cited a theory called “net out” where accepting emigrants or clandestine emigrants to one’s country may push others out even replace them in work.  There is a wide spread fear in receiving countries that emigrants will replace their citizens in work, often working harder and for lower wages. In some cases emigrants are described as roaming work forces.

 

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Even the slightest knowledge about wage increases elsewhere can ignite regional or cross border exchanges.  Hatton and Williamson did not go into detail about the long term effects of migration.  The OECD report detailed legal versus illegal immigration and at what point one is breaking the law.

 

Conclusion 

Other things still may impact African emigration.  The African’s who are successfully emigrating are likely students and were in pursuit of an education.  Still others may be beholden to their architecture as OCED also cited Moroccan’s as migrating into southern Europe.  Morocco has clay structured cave like housing that after new generations were born the architecture may no longer accommodate them.  Depending on one’s lense, these cultural curiosities, highly skilled, roaming work forces may be welcome or not welcome.  Emigrants in France were said to have taken over ~17% of the country.  No one seems to be compassionate when upheaval occurs, and no one appears to look for root causes that may remedy a problem or a suffering population within or outside their home country.

Population dynamics and the factors that shift net migration are diverse but perhaps just a handful of things makes one pick up and leave their home country in search very often for an all-around better quality of life-inclusive of health care, education, food supply, housing, government, lack of war, higher wage and a possibility to elevate themselves and their extended family via wiring monies home etc.  Perhaps conditions become unbearable or unlivable or too hostile or countries go into transition and world organizations do and do not respond effectively.

Additional information can be found by looking at Census Bureau statistics, reports from the United Nations, and The World Refugee Survey.

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References

Hatton, Timothy J. & Williamson, Jeffrey G., Demographic and Economic Pressure on Emigration out of Africa, Scandinavia Journal of Economics, 105(3), 465–486, 2003, 1998

List of OECD Member Countries, http://www.oecd.org/about/membersandpartners/list-oecd-member-countries.htm

Annual Report, Trends in International Migration:  Continuous Reporting System on Migration, 1999 Edition, https://www.oecd.org/migration/mig/2717683.pdf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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