The Big Designers
By, Afua Osei-Bonsu
The big designers in life very well may be three things 1)necessity, 2)war and 3)just because we could.
“Necessity” it has been said was utilized by Chinese manufacturers and marked the focus of early eras in design and engineering. Underneath the helm of “necessity” most of design falls out.
“War” is another design pioneer that inspires a lot of technologies and teachings.
The third big designer is “just because we could,” that has to do with things like dinosaurs that apparently may have been whimsy of early scientists and according to one scientist, dinosaurs may still be existence on some far off planets.
Still other things in life become big designers such as those things that shape us and inspire change. Perhaps big designers 4) are the “shapers,” like policy, taxation systems, popular culture, politics, poverty, education etc.
Moving on to the current century with most of necessity completely in existence, a new big designer may be #5) “Secondary Concept” where you make a dress from for example a sugar bowl, which becomes the secondary design when you look in a former design-in and around it and using deconstruction.
Another big designer is the constant drive to evolve, #6 is evolution. Evolution inspired most of innovation. The notch and notch way that one inches upwards using research and development creates innovation formulas and new propelling designs. With every technology it is as if, we can now achieve this xyz therefore the following must also be possible, and the designer takes a step, then still another step connecting all the dots. If one can fly, they can place the star on top of the giant tree, if one can vapor they may perform a heart transplant without incision.
Of course we design and redesign necessity in a constant.
By, Afua Osei-Bonsu
Why is Intelligent Design (ID) untestable? ID has to do with how do new things originate? According to the “Nature of Science,” By Christine V. McClelland,“Creationism, Creation Science and Intelligent Design (ID) are spiritual concepts” that involve events of phenomena.” Science has long had conflict with spiritual concepts that are not necessarily grounded in the scientific method, are not testable and are based on the belief in supernatural events.
“What was the big deal about the 2005 Kansas State Board of Education rewording of science?”
The Kansas State Board of Education held hearings about how to define science and how to teach science with conflicting evidence including that of evolution, Darwinism and Intelligent Design. 
Teachers were in turmoil while religious and political groups promoted ideas about Creationism and Intelligent Design that aligned with their group’s ideas including those supporting supernatural events within their framing of origin that competed with popular biological and scientific ideas based on fact and perhaps things such as DNA Helix. What was to be taught in high schools and posted on websites like the popular website detailing “what is science?” to children: (http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/babysfirstresearch)
The 2005 Kansas State Board of Education could actually unveil a long term “shroud of ignorance” that published and promoted to students mythical and supernatural ideas that misinformed and mislead students to base their education on something that was not testable or rooted in facts.
The Board of Education settled on teaching a “controversy method,” and “critical analysis of evolution.” One goal of the outcome was to help students make “informed decisions.”
Perhaps the case presented a juncture in which students may begin to question deeply existentialism, dogma and life origins. It is unclear if schools will ever present real, tangible, evidence and fact based education.
 McClelland, Christine V, The Nature of Science and the Scientific Method